241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Phosphorylation-dependent transcription factor thatstimulates transcription upon binding to the DNA cAMP responseelement (CRE), a sequence present in many viral and cellularpromoters Transcription activation is enhanced by the TORCcoactivators which act independently of Ser-133 phosphorylationInvolved in different cellular processes including thesynchronization of circadian rhythmicity and the differentiationof adipose cells
Cyclic GMP (cGMP) is the intracellular second messenger that mediates the action of nitric oxide (NO) and natriuretic peptides (NPs), regulating a broad array of physiologic processes. The elevated intracellular cGMP level exerts its physiological action through two forms of cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG), cGMP-regulated phosphodiesterases (PDE2, PDE3) and cGMP-gated cation channels, among which PKGs might be the primary mediator. PKG1 isoform-specific activation of established substrates leads to reduction of cytosolic calcium concentration and/or decrease in the sensitivity of myofilaments to Ca2+ (Ca2+-desensitization), resulting in smooth muscle relaxation. In cardiac myocyte, PKG directly phosphorylates a member of the transient potential receptor canonical channel family, TRPC6, suppressing this nonselective ion channel's Ca2+ conductance, G-alpha-q agonist-induced NFAT activation, and myocyte hypertrophic responses. PKG also opens mitochondrial ATP-sensitive K+ (mitoKATP) channels and subsequent release of ROS triggers cardioprotection.
cAMP is one of the most common and universal second messengers, and its formation is promoted by adenylyl cyclase (AC) activation after ligation of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) by ligands including hormones, neurotransmitters, and other signaling molecules. cAMP regulates pivotal physiologic processes including metabolism, secretion, calcium homeostasis, muscle contraction, cell fate, and gene transcription. cAMP acts directly on three main targets: protein kinase A (PKA), the exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac), and cyclic nucleotide-gated ion channels (CNGCs). PKA modulates, via phosphorylation, a number of cellular substrates, including transcription factors, ion channels, transporters, exchangers, intracellular Ca2+ -handling proteins, and the contractile machinery. Epac proteins function as guanine nucleotide exchange factors (GEFs) for both Rap1 and Rap2. Various effector proteins, including adaptor proteins implicated in modulation of the actin cytoskeleton, regulators of G proteins of the Rho family, and phospholipases, relay signaling downstream from Rap.
The phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, translation, proliferation, growth, and survival. The binding of growth factors to their receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) or G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) stimulates class Ia and Ib PI3K isoforms, respectively. PI3K catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) at the cell membrane. PIP3 in turn serves as a second messenger that helps to activate Akt. Once active, Akt can control key cellular processes by phosphorylating substrates involved in apoptosis, protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell cycle.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis.
Regulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible strategy for extending lifespan. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the CR effect. These are the insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)/insulin signaling pathway, the sirtuin pathway, the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway. The collective response of these pathways to CR is believed to promote cellular fitness and ultimately longevity via activation of autophagy, stress defense mechanisms, and survival pathways while attenuating proinflammatory mediators and cellular growth. Furthermore, there is evidence supporting that life span extension can be achieved with pharmacologic agents that mimic the effects of caloric restriction, such as rapamycin, via mTOR signaling blockade, resveratrol, by activating SIRT1 activity, and metformin, which seems to be a robust stimulator of AMPK activity. As an aging suppressor, Klotho is an important molecule in aging processes and its overexpression results in longevity.
Cardiac myocytes express at least six subtypes of adrenergic receptor (AR) which include three subtypes of beta-AR (beta-1, beta-2, beta-3) and three subtypes of the alpha-1-AR (alpha-1A, alpha-1B, and alpha-1C). In the human heart the beta-1-AR is the pre- dominate receptor. Acute sympathetic stimulation of cardiac beta-1-ARs induces positive inotropic and chronotropic effects, the most effective mechanism to acutely increase output of the heart, by coupling to Gs, formation of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase (AC), and PKA- dependent phosphorylation of various target proteins (e.g., ryanodine receptor [RyR]; phospholamban [PLB], troponin I [TnI], and the L-type Ca2+ channel [LTCC]). Chronic beta-1-AR stimulation is detrimental and induces cardiomyocyte hypertrophy and apoptosis. beta-2-AR coupled to Gs exerts a proapoptotic action as well as beta-1-AR, while beta-2-AR coupled to Gi exerts an antiapoptotic action.
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast.
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF), as a critical cytokine, can induce a wide range of intracellular signal pathways including apoptosis and cell survival as well as inflammation and immunity. Activated TNF is assembled to a homotrimer and binds to its receptors (TNFR1, TNFR2) resulting in the trimerization of TNFR1 or TNFR2. TNFR1 is expressed by nearly all cells and is the major receptor for TNF (also called TNF-alpha). In contrast, TNFR2 is expressed in limited cells such as CD4 and CD8 T lymphocytes, endothelial cells, microglia, oligodendrocytes, neuron subtypes, cardiac myocytes, thymocytes and human mesenchymal stem cells. It is the receptor for both TNF and LTA (also called TNF-beta). Upon binding of the ligand, TNFR mediates the association of some adaptor proteins such as TRADD or TRAF2, which in turn initiate recruitment of signal transducers. TNFR1 signaling induces activation of many genes, primarily controlled by two distinct pathways, NF-kappa B pathway and the MAPK cascade, or apoptosis and necroptosis. TNFR2 signaling activates NF-kappa B pathway including PI3K-dependent NF-kappa B pathway and JNK pathway leading to survival.
Circadian rhythm is an internal biological clock, which enables to sustain an approximately 24-hour rhythm in the absence of environmental cues. In mammals, the circadian clock mechanism consists of cell-autonomous transcription-translation feedback loops that drive rhythmic, 24-hour expression patterns of core clock components. The first negative feedback loop is a rhythmic transcription of period genes (PER1, PER2, and PER3) and chryptochrome genes (CRY1 and CRY2). PER and CRY proteins form a heterodimer, which acts on the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer to repress its own transcription. PER and CRY proteins are phosphorylated by casein kinase epsilon (CKIepsilon), which leads to degradation and restarting of the cycle. The second loop is a positive feedback loop driven by the CLOCK/BMAL1 heterodimer, which initiates transcription of target genes containing E-box cis-regulatory enhancer sequences.
Circadian entrainment is a fundamental property by which the period of the internal biological clock is entrained by recurring exogenous signals, such that the organism's endocrine and behavioral rhythms are synchronized to environmental cues. In mammals, a master clock is located in the suprachiasmatic nuclei (SCN) of the hypothalamus and may synchronize circadian oscillators in peripheral tissues. Light signal is the dominant synchronizer for master SCN clock. Downstream from the retina, glutamate and PACAP are released and trigger the activation of signal transduction cascades, including CamKII and nNOS activity, cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinases, and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Of non-photic entrainment, important phase shifting capabilities have been found for melatonin, which inhibits light-induced phase shifts through inhibition of adenylate cyclase (AC). Multiple entrainment pathways converge into CREB regulation. In turn, phosphorylated CREB activates clock gene expression.
Thermogenesis is essential for warm-blooded animals, ensuring normal cellular and physiological function under conditions of environmental challenge. Thermogenesis in brown and beige adipose tissue is mainly controlled by norepinephrine, which is released from sympathetic nervous system in response to cold or dietary stimuli. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for the process whereby chemical energy is converted into heat in these adipocytes. Activation of these adipocytes leads to an increase in calorie consumption and is expected to improve overweight conditions, providing a potential strategy for treating obesity and its related metabolic disorders.
Acetylcholine (ACh) is a neurotransmitter widely distributed in the central (and also peripheral, autonomic and enteric) nervous system (CNS). In the CNS, ACh facilitates many functions, such as learning, memory, attention and motor control. When released in the synaptic cleft, ACh binds to two distinct types of receptors: Ionotropic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR) and metabotropic muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs). The activation of nAChR by ACh leads to the rapid influx of Na+ and Ca2+ and subsequent cellular depolarization. Activation of mAChRs is relatively slow (milliseconds to seconds) and, depending on the subtypes present (M1-M5), they directly alter cellular homeostasis of phospholipase C, inositol trisphosphate, cAMP, and free calcium. In the cleft, ACh may also be hydrolyzed by acetylcholinesterase (AChE) into choline and acetate. The choline derived from ACh hydrolysis is recovered by a presynaptic high-affinity choline transporter (CHT).
Dopamine (DA) is an important and prototypical slow neurotransmitter in the mammalian brain, where it controls a variety of functions including locomotor activity, motivation and reward, learning and memory, and endocrine regulation. Once released from presynaptic axonal terminals, DA interacts with at least five receptor subtypes in the central nervous system (CNS), which have been divided into two groups: the D1-like receptors (D1Rs), comprising D1 and D5 receptors, both positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase and cAMP production, and the D2-like receptors (D2Rs), comprising D2, D3, and D4 receptors, whose activation results in inhibition of adenylyl cyclase and suppression of cAMP production. In addition, D1Rs and D2Rs modulate intracellular Ca2+ levels and a number of Ca2+ -dependent intracellular signaling processes. Through diverse cAMP- and Ca2+-dependent and - independent mechanisms, DA influences neuronal activity, synaptic plasticity, and behavior. Presynaptically localized D2Rs regulate synthesis and release of DA as the main autoreceptor of the dopaminergic system.
Pancreatic beta cells are specialised endocrine cells that continuously sense the levels of blood sugar and other fuels and, in response, secrete insulin to maintain normal fuel homeostasis. Glucose-induced insulin secretion and its potentiation constitute the principal mechanism of insulin release. Glucose is transported by the glucose transporter (GLUT) into the pancreatic beta-cell. Metabolism of glucose generates ATP, which inhibits ATP-sensitive K+ channels and causes voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx. Elevation of [Ca2+]i triggers exocytotic release of insulin granules. Insulin secretion is further regulated by several hormones and neurotransmitters. Peptide hormones, such as glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), increase cAMP levels and thereby potentiate insulin secretion via the combined action of PKA and Epac2. Achetylcholine (ACh), a major parasympathetic neurotransmitter, binds to Gq-coupled receptors and activates phospholipase C- (PLC-), and the stimulatory effects involve activation of protein kinase C (PKC), which stimulates exocytosis. In addition, ACh mobilizes intracellular Ca2+ by activation of IP3 receptors.
Estrogens are steroid hormones that regulate a plethora of physiological processes in mammals, including reproduction, cardiovascular protection, bone integrity, cellular homeostasis, and behavior. Estrogen mediates its cellular actions through two signaling pathways classified as nuclear-initiated steroid signalingand membrane-initiated steroid signaling. In the nuclearpathway, estrogen binds either ERalpha or ERbeta, which in turn translocates to the nucleus, binds DNA at ERE elements and activates the expression of ERE-dependent genes. In membranepathway, Estrogen can exert its actions through a subpopulation of ER at the plasma membrane (mER) or novel G-protein coupled E2 receptors (GPER). Upon activation of these receptors various signaling pathways (i.e. Ca2+, cAMP, protein kinase cascades) are rapidly activated and ultimately influence downstream transcription factors.
Cutaneous melanin pigment plays a critical role in camouflage, mimicry, social communication, and protection against harmful effects of solar radiation. Melanogenesis is under complex regulatory control by multiple agents. The most important positive regulator of melanogenesis is the MC1 receptor with its ligands melanocortic peptides. MC1R activates the cyclic AMP (cAMP) response-element binding protein (CREB). Increased expression of MITF and its activation by phosphorylation (P) stimulate the transcription of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase-related protein 1 (TYRP1), and dopachrome tautomerase (DCT), which produce melanin. Melanin synthesis takes place within specialized intracellular organelles named melanosomes. Melanin-containing melanosomes then move from the perinuclear region to the dendrite tips and are transferred to keratinocytes by a still not well-characterized mechanism.
Thyroid hormones triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxine (T4) are essential for normal development, growth and metabolic homeostasis in all vertebrates, and synthesized in the thyroid gland. The functional unit of the thyroid gland is the follicle, delimited by a monolayer of thyrocytes. Polarized thyrocytes surround the follicular lumen; with their basal and apical surfaces facing the bloodstream and the lumen, respectively. To synthesize thyroid hormones, thyrocytes take up iodide at their basal side and concentrate it into the lumen. They also secrete in this lumen the specialized protein thyroglobulin (TG) which serves as a store for the hormones. In the follicular lumen oxidation of iodine, iodination of tyrosines (MIT, 3-monoiodotyrosine; DIT, 3,5-diiodotyrosine) and coupling of iodotyrosines takes place on tyrosine residues in TG, resulting in T3 and T4 synthesis. Iodinated TG is resorbed through the apical membrane and degraded to form T3/T4 in lysosomes; the T3/T4 is then secreted through the basal membrane.
Glucagon is conventionally regarded as a counterregulatory hormone for insulin and plays a critical anti-hypoglycemic role by maintaining glucose homeostasis in both animals and humans. To increase blood glucose, glucagon promotes hepatic glucose output by increasing glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and by decreasing glycogenesis and glycolysis in a concerted fashion via multiple mechanisms. Glucagon also stimulates hepatic mitochondrial beta-oxidation to supply energy for glucose production. Glucagon performs its main effect via activation of adenylate cyclase. The adenylate-cyclase-derived cAMP activates protein kinase A (PKA), which then phosphorylates downstream targets, such as cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and the bifunctional enzyme 6-phosphofructo-2-kinase/ fructose-2,6-bisphosphatase (one of the isoforms being PFK/FBPase 1, encoded by PFKFB1).
The aspartyl-protease renin is the key regulator of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, which is critically involved in extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure homeostasis of the body. Renin is synthesized, stored in, and released into circulation by the juxtaglomerular (JG) cells of the kidney. Secretion of renin from JG cells at the organ level is controlled by the four main mechanisms: the sympathetic nervous system, the local JG apparatus baroreflex, the macula densa mechanism, and several hormones acting locally within the JG apparatus. Renin secretion at the level of renal JG cells appears to be controlled mainly by classic second messengers, namely cAMP, cGMP, and free cytosolic calcium concentration. While cAMP generally stimulates renin release and the intracellular calcium concentration suppresses the exocytosis of renin, the effects of cGMP in the regulation of the renin system are more complex as it both may stimulate or inhibit renin release.
Aldosterone is a steroid hormone synthesized in and secreted from the outer layer of the adrenal cortex, the zona glomerulosa. Aldosterone plays an important role in the regulation of systemic blood pressure through the absorption of sodium and water. Angiotensin II (Ang II), potassium (K+) and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) are the main extracellular stimuli which regulate aldosterone secretion. These physiological agonists all converge on two major intracellular signaling pathways: calcium (Ca2+) mobilization and an increase in cAMP production. The increase in cytosolic calcium levels activates calcium/calmodulin- dependent protein kinases (CaMK), and the increased cAMP levels stimulate the activity of cAMP-dependent protein kinase, or protein kinase A (PKA). The activated CaMK, and possibly PKA, activates transcription factors (NURR1 and NGF1B, CREB) to induce StAR and CYP11B2 expression, the early and late rate- limiting steps in aldosterone biosynthesis, respectively, thereby stimulating aldosterone secretion.
Human relaxin-2 (relaxin), originally identified as a peptidic hormone of pregnancy, is now known to exert a range of pleiotropic effects including vasodilatory, anti-fibrotic and angiogenic effects in both males and females. It belongs to the so-called relaxin peptide family which includes the insulin-like peptides INSL3 and INSL5, and relaxin-3 (H3) as well as relaxin. INSL3 has clearly defined specialist roles in male and female reproduction, relaxin-3 is primarily a neuropeptide involved in stress and metabolic control, and INSL5 is widely distributed particularly in the gastrointestinal tract. These members of relaxin peptide family exert such effects binding to different kinds of receptors, classified as relaxin family peptide (RXFP) receptors: RXFP1, RXFP2, RXFP3, and RXFP4. These G protein-coupled receptors predominantly bind relaxin, INSL3, relaxin-3, and INSL-5, respectively. RXFP1 activates a wide spectrum of signaling pathways to generate second messengers that include cAMP and nitric oxide, whereas RXFP2 activates a subset of these pathways. Both RXFP3 and RXFP4 inhibit cAMP production, and RXFP3 activate MAP kinases.
Cortisol is the main endogenous glucocorticoid, which affects a plethora of physiological functions, e.g., lipid and glucose metabolism, metabolic homeostasis and adaptation to stress. Cortisol production is primarily regulated by corticotropin (ACTH) in zona fasciculata. The stimulatory effect of ACTH on cortisol synthesis depends on cAMP dependent signaling, but also involves membrane depolarization and increased cytosolic Ca2+. Each of cAMP and Ca2+ induces the expression of StAR, stimulating intramitochondrial cholesterol transfer, as well as the steroidogenic enzymes in the pathway from cholesterol to cortisol (e.g., CHE, CYP17A1, CYP11B1).
Parathyroid hormone (PTH) is a key regulator of calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. The principal regulators of PTH secretion are extracellular ionized calcium (Ca2+) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D3). Under conditions of dietary Ca restriction, a decrement in serum Ca concentration induces release of PTH from the parathyroid gland. PTH acts on bone and kidney to stimulate bone turnover, increase the circulating levels of 1,25(OH)2D3 and calcium and inhibit the reabsorption of phosphate from the glomerular filtrate. This hormone exerts its actions via binding to the PTH/PTH-related peptide receptor (PTH1R). PTH1R primarily activates two sub-types of heterotrimeric Gproteins: Gs and Gq , which in turn regulate the activity of adenylyl cyclases and phospholipase C (PLC) that control the flow of cAMP/PKA and IP/PKC signaling cascades, respectively.
Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms underlying insulin resistance are shown: (a) increased phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) protein through serine/threonine kinases, such as JNK1 and IKKB, and protein kinase C, (b) increased IRS-1 proteasome degradation via mTOR signaling pathway, (c) decreased activation of signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT, (d) increase in activity of phosphatases including PTPs, PTEN, and PP2A. Regulatory actions such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of intracellular lipid derivatives (diacylglycrol and ceramides), and inflammation (via IL-6 and TNFA) contribute to these mechanisms. Consequently, insulin resistance causes reduced GLUT4 translocation, resulting in glucose takeup and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle as well as increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen synthesis in liver. At the bottom of the diagram, interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation is shown. Studies suggested that elevated O-GlcNAc level was correlated to high glucose-induced insulin resistance. Donor UDP-GlcNAc is induced through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase. Elevation of O-GlcNAc modification alters phosphorylation and function of key insulin signaling proteins including IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, Akt and other transcription factor and cofactors, resulting in the attenuation of insulin signaling cascade.
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to excess glucocorticoids via exogenous and endogenous sources. The typical clinical features of CS are related to hypercortisolism and include accumulation of central fat, moon facies, neuromuscular weakness, osteoporosis or bone fractures, metabolic complications, and mood changes. Traditionally, endogenous CS is classified as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent (about 80%) or ACTH- independent (about 20%). Among ACTH-dependent forms, pituitary corticotroph adenoma (Cushing's disease) is most common. Most pituitary tumors are sporadic, resulting from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. Recently recurrent activating somatic driver mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 gene (USP8) were identified in almost half of corticotroph adenoma. Germline mutations in MEN1 (encoding menin), AIP (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein), PRKAR1A (encoding cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I alpha regulatory subunit) and CDKN1B (encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; also known as p27 Kip1) have been identified in familial forms of pituitary adenomas. However, the frequency of familial pituitary adenomas is less than 5% in patients with pituitary adenomas. Among ACTH-independent CS, adrenal adenoma is most common. Rare adrenal causes of CS include primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) or primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
In the kidney, the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (AVP) is a critical regulator of water homeostasis by controlling the water movement from lumen to the interstitium for water reabsorption and adjusting the urinary water excretion. In normal physiology, AVP is secreted into the circulation by the posterior pituitary gland, in response to an increase in serum osmolality or a decrease in effective circulating volume. When reaching the kidney, AVP binds to V2 receptors on the basolateral surface of the collecting duct epithelium, triggering a G-protein-linked signaling cascade, which leads to water channel aquaporin-2 (AQP2) vesicle insertion into the apical plasma membrane. This results in higher water permeability in the collecting duct and, driven by an osmotic gradient, pro-urinary water then passes the membrane through AQP2 and leaves the cell on the basolateral side via AQP3 and AQP4 water channels, which are constitutively expressed on the basolateral side of these cells. When isotonicity is restored, reduced blood AVP levels results in AQP2 internalization, leaving the apical membrane watertight again.
Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal-dominant neurodegenerative disorder that primarily affects medium spiny striatal neurons (MSN). The symptoms are choreiform, involuntary movements, personality changes and dementia. HD is caused by a CAG repeat expansion in the IT15gene, which results in a long stretch of polyglutamine close to the amino-terminus of the HD protein huntingtin (Htt). Mutant Htt (mHtt) has effects both in the cytoplasm and in the nucleus. In the cytoplasm, full-length mHtt can interfere with BDNF vesicular transport on microtubules. This mutant protein also may lead to abnormal endocytosis and secretion in neurons, because normal Htt form a complex with the proteins Hip1, clathrin and AP2 that are involved in endocytosis. In addition, mHtt affects Ca2+ signaling by sensitizing InsP3R1 to activation by InsP3, stimulating NMDAR activity, and destabilizing mitochondrial Ca2+ handling. The mHtt translocates to the nucleus, where it forms intranuclear inclusions. Nuclear toxicity is believed to be caused by interference with gene transcription, leading to loss of transcription of neuroprotective molecules such as BDNF. While mHtt binds to p53 and upregulates levels of nuclear p53 as well as p53 transcriptional activity. Augmented p53 mediates mitochondrial dysfunction.
Drug addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder in which compulsive drug-seeking and drug-taking behavior persists despite serious negative consequences.There is strong evidence that the dopaminergic system that projects from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) of the midbrain to the nucleus accumbens (NAc), and to other forebrain sites, is the major substrate of reward and reinforcement for both natural rewards and addictive drugs. Cocaine binds strongly to the dopamine-reuptake transporter, preventing the reuptake of dopamine into the nerve terminal. Because of this blocking effect, dopamine remains at high concentrations in the synapse and continues to affect adjacent neurons, producing the characteristic cocaine high.Activated D1 receptor activates the PKA signaling pathway, and this pathway plays a critical role in mediating the behavioral responses to cocaine administration. Cocaine-induced neuroadaptations, including dopamine depletion, may underlie craving and hedonic dysregulation.
Amphetamine is a psychostimulant drug that exerts persistent addictive effects. Most addictive drugs increase extracellular concentrations of dopamine (DA) in nucleus accumbens (NAc) and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), projection areas of mesocorticolimbic DA neurons and key components of the brain reward circuit. Amphetamine achieves this elevation in extracellular levels of DA by promoting efflux from synaptic terminals. Acute administration of amphetamine induces phosphorylation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and expression of a number of immediate early genes (IEGs), such as c-fos. The IEGs is likely to initiate downstream molecular events, which may have important roles in the induction and maintenance of addictive states. Chronic exposure to amphetamine induces a unique transcription factor delta FosB, which plays an essential role in long-term adaptive changes in the brain.
Alcoholism, also called dependence on alcohol (ethanol), is a chronic relapsing disorder that is progressive and has serious detrimental health outcomes. As one of the primary mediators of the rewarding effects of alcohol, dopaminergic ventral tegmental area (VTA) projections to the nucleus accumbens (NAc) have been identified. Acute exposure to alcohol stimulates dopamine release into the NAc, which activates D1 receptors, stimulating PKA signaling and subsequent CREB-mediated gene expression, whereas chronic alcohol exposure leads to an adaptive downregulation of this pathway, in particular of CREB function. The decreased CREB function in the NAc may promote the intake of drugs of abuse to achieve an increase in reward and thus may be involved in the regulation of positive affective states of addiction. PKA signaling also affects NMDA receptor activity and may play an important role in neuroadaptation in response to chronic alcohol exposure.
Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent infections, and about 10% of latent infections develop active diseases when their immune system is impaired due to the age, other diseases such as AIDS or exposure to immunosuppressive drugs. TB is transmitted through the air and primarily attacks the lungs, then it can spread by the circulatory system to other parts of body. Once TB bacilli have entered the host by the respiratory route and infected macrophages in the lungs, they interfere with phagosomal maturation, antigen presentation, apoptosis and host immune system to establish persistent or latent infection.
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template for transcription of all viral RNAs including the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), encoding for 7 viral proteins: large, middle, and small envelope proteins (LHBs, MHBs, and SHBs) that form the surface antigen (HBsAg), the core antigen (HBcAg), the e antigen (HBeAg), the HBV polymerase, and the regulatory protein X (HBx). The pgRNA interacts with the viral polymerase protein to initiate the encapsidation into the core particles. Through endoplasmic reticulum, the core particles finish assembling with the envelope proteins and are released. HBV infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases raging from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of liver injury is still not clear. However, HBV proteins target host proteins, involved in a variety of functions, thus regulating transcription, cellular signaling cascades, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is a member of beta-herpesvirus family. HCMV is best known for causing significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. As with other herpesviruses, HCMV gB and gH/gL envelope glycoproteins are essential for virus entry. HCMV gB could activate the PDGFRA, and induce activation of the oncogenic PI3-K/AKT pathway. Though it is unlikely that HCMV by itself can act as an oncogenic factor, HCMV may have an oncomodulatory role, to catalyze an oncogenic process that has already been initiated. US28, one of the four HCMV-encoded vGPCRs (US27, US28, UL33 and UL78), also has a specific role in the oncomodulatory properties. In addition, HCMV has developed numerous mechanisms for manipulating the host immune system. The virally encoded US2, US3, US6 and US11 gene products all interfere with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation. HCMV encodes several immediate early (IE) antiapoptotic proteins (IE1, IE2, vMIA and vICA). These proteins might avoid immune clearance of infected tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and NK cells.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV infect mucoal and cutaneous epithelium resulting in several types of pathologies, most notably, cervical cancer. All types of HPV share a common genomic structure and encode eight proteins: E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 (early) and L1 and L2 (late). It has been demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication. The functions of the E4 protein is not yet fully understood. E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins. E5 inhibits the V-ATPase, prolonging EGFR signaling and thereby promoting cell proliferation. The expression of E6 and E7 not only inhibits the tumor suppressors p53 and Rb, but also alters additional signalling pathways. Among these pathways, PI3K/Akt signalling cascade plays a very important role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The L1 and L2 proteins form icosahedral capsids for progeny virion generation.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the most recently identified human tumor virus, and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Like all other herpesviruses, KSHV displays two modes of life cycle, latency and lytic replication, which are characterized by the patterns of viral gene expression. Genes expressed in latency (LANA, v-cyclin, v-FLIP, Kaposins A, B and C and viral miRNAs) are mainly thought to facilitate the establishment of life long latency in its host and survival against the host innate, and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms. Among the viral proteins shown to be expressed during lytic replication are potent signaling molecules such as vGPCR, vIL6, vIRFs, vCCLs, K1 and K15, which have been implicated experimentally in the angiogenic and inflammatory phenotype observed in KS lesions. Several of these latent viral and lytic proteins are known to transform host cells, linking KSHV with the development of severe human malignancies.
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses (GSTP1), growth-factor-signaling pathways (NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27), and androgens (AR) as critical determinants of the phenotype of prostate-cancer cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1) are detoxifying enzymes. Cells of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, devoid of GSTP1, undergo genomic damage mediated by carcinogens. NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27 regulate the growth and survival of prostate cells in the normal prostate. Inadequate levels of PTEN and NKX3.1 lead to a reduction in p27 levels and to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is normally activated by its androgen ligand. During androgen withdrawal therapy, the AR signal transduction pathway also could be activated by amplification of the AR gene, by AR gene mutations, or by altered activity of AR coactivators. Through these mechanisms, tumor cells lead to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) induces gene transcription through activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), and subsequent phosphorylation of the transcription factor cAMP response element-binding protein, CREB, at serine-133
The Ca2+-calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaM kinase) cascade includes three kinases: CaM-kinase kinase (CaMKK); and the CaM kinases CaMKI and CaMKIV, which are phosphorylated and activated by CaMKK. Members of this cascade respond to elevation of intracellular Ca2+ levels. CaMKK and CaMKIV localize both to the nucleus and to the cytoplasm, whereas CaMKI is only cytosolic. Nuclear CaMKIV regulates transcription through phosphorylation of several transcription factors, including CREB. In the cytoplasm, there is extensive cross-talk between CaMKK, CaMKIV and other signaling cascades, including those that involve the cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA), MAP kinases and protein kinase B (PKB/Akt)
Nerve growth factor (NGF) activates multiple signalling pathways that mediate the phosphorylation of CREB at the critical regulatory site, serine 133. CREB phosphorylation at serine 133 is a crucial event in neurotrophin signalling, being mediated by ERK/RSK, ERK/MSK1 and p38/MAPKAPK2 pathways. Several kinases, such as MSK1, RSK1/2/3 (MAPKAPK1A/B/C), and MAPKAPK2, are able to directly phosphorylate CREB at S133. MSK1 is also able to activate ATF (Cyclic-AMP-dependent transcription factor). However, the NGF-induced CREB phosphorylation appears to correlate better with activation of MSK1 rather than RSK1/2/3, or MAPKAPK2. In retrograde signalling, activation of CREB occurs within 20 minutes after neurotrophin stimulation of distal axons
Phosphorylated PPARGC1A (PGC-1alpha) does not bind DNA directly but instead interacts with other transcription factors, notably NRF1 and NRF2 (via HCF1). NRF1 and NRF2 together with PPARGC1A activate the transcription of nuclear-encoded, mitochondrially targeted proteins such as TFB2M, TFB1M, and TFAM. PGC-1beta and PPRC appear to act similarly to PGC-1alpha but have not been as well studied. Transcription of PPARGC1A itself is upregulated by CREB1 (in response to calcium), MEF2C/D, ATF2, and PPARGC1A. Transcription of PPARGC1A is repressed by NR1D1 (REV-ERBA)
In the nucleus, NICD2 forms a complex with RBPJ (CBF1, CSL) and MAML (mastermind). NICD2:RBPJ:MAML complex activates transcription from RBPJ-binding promoter elements (RBEs) (Wu et al. 2000). Besides NICD2, RBPJ and MAML, NOTCH2 coactivator complex likely includes other proteins, shown as components of the NOTCH1 coactivator complex. NOTCH2 coactivator complex directly stimulates transcription of HES1 and HES5 genes (Shimizu et al. 2002), both of which are known NOTCH1 targets.The promoter of FCER2 (CD23A) contains several RBEs that are occupied by NOTCH2 but not NOTCH1 coactivator complexes, and NOTCH2 activation stimulates FCER2 transcription. Overexpression of FCER2 (CD23A) is a hallmark of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) and correlates with the malfunction of apoptosis, which is thought be an underlying mechanism of B-CLL development. The Epstein-Barr virus protein EBNA2 can also activate FCER2 transcription through RBEs, possibly by mimicking NOTCH2 signaling (Hubmann et al. 2002).NOTCH2 coactivator complex occupies the proximal RBE of the GZMB (granzyme B) promoter and at the same time interacts with phosphorylated CREB1, bound to an adjacent CRE site. EP300 transcriptional coactivator is also recruited to this complex through association with CREB1 (Maekawa et al. 2008). NOTCH2 coactivator complex together with CREBP1 and EP300 stimulates transcription of GZMB (granzyme B), which is important for the cytotoxic function of CD8+ T-cells (Maekawa et al. 2008).There are indications that NOTCH2 genetically interacts with hepatocyte nuclear factor 1-beta (HNF1B) in kidney development (Massa et al. 2013, Heliot et al. 2013) and with hepatocyte nuclear factor 6 (HNF6) in bile duct formation (Vanderpool et al. 2012), but the exact nature of these genetic interactions has not been defined
The neural cell adhesion molecule, NCAM, is a member of the immunoglobulin (Ig) superfamily and is involved in a variety of cellular processes of importance for the formation and maintenance of the nervous system. The role of NCAM in neural differentiation and synaptic plasticity is presumed to depend on the modulation of intracellular signal transduction cascades. NCAM based signaling complexes can initiate downstream intracellular signals by at least two mechanisms: (1) activation of FGFR and (2) formation of intracellular signaling complexes by direct interaction with cytoplasmic interaction partners such as Fyn and FAK. Tyrosine kinases Fyn and FAK interact with NCAM and undergo phosphorylation and this transiently activates the MAPK, ERK 1 and 2, cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) and transcription factors ELK and NFkB. CREB activates transcription of genes which are important for axonal growth, survival, and synaptic plasticity in neurons.NCAM1 mediated intracellular signal transduction is represented in the figure below. The Ig domains in NCAM1 are represented in orange ovals and Fn domains in green squares. The tyrosine residues susceptible to phosphorylation are represented in red circles and their positions are numbered. Phosphorylation is represented by red arrows and dephosphorylation by yellow. Ig, Immunoglobulin domain; Fn, Fibronectin domain; Fyn, Proto-oncogene tyrosine-protein kinase Fyn; FAK, focal adhesion kinase; RPTPalpha, Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase; Grb2, Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2; SOS, Son of sevenless homolog; Raf, RAF proto-oncogene serine/threonine-protein kinase; MEK, MAPK and ERK kinase; ERK, Extracellular signal-regulated kinase; MSK1, Mitogen and stress activated protein kinase 1; CREB, Cyclic AMP-responsive element-binding protein; CRE, cAMP response elements
At the center of the mammalian circadian clock is a negative transcription/translation-based feedback loop: The BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 (ARNTL:CLOCK/NPAS2) heterodimer transactivates CRY and PER genes by binding E-box elements in their promoters; the CRY and PER proteins then inhibit transactivation by BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2. BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 activates transcription of CRY, PER, and several other genes in the morning. Levels of PER and CRY proteins rise during the day and inhibit expression of CRY, PER, and other BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2-activated genes in the afternoon and evening. During the night CRY and PER proteins are targeted for degradation by phosphorylation and polyubiquitination, allowing the cycle to commence again in the morning. Transcription of the BMAL1 (ARNTL) gene is controlled by ROR-alpha and REV-ERBA (NR1D1), both of which are targets of BMAL1:CLOCK/NPAS2 in mice and both of which compete for the same element (RORE) in the BMAL1 promoter. ROR-alpha (RORA) activates transcription of BMAL1; REV-ERBA represses transcription of BMAL1. This mutual control forms a secondary, reinforcing loop of the circadian clock. REV-ERBA shows strong circadian rhythmicity and confers circadian expression on BMAL1. BMAL1 can form heterodimers with either CLOCK or NPAS2, which act redundantly but show different tissue specificity. The BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 heterodimers activate a set of genes that possess E-box elements (consensus CACGTG) in their promoters. This confers circadian expression on the genes. The PER genes (PER1, PER2, PER3) and CRY genes (CRY1, CRY2) are among those activated by BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2. PER and CRY mRNA accumulates during the morning and the proteins accumulate during the afternoon. PER and CRY proteins form complexes in the cytosol and these are bound by either CSNK1D or CSNK1E kinases which phosphorylate PER and CRY. The phosphorylated PER:CRY:kinase complex is translocated into the nucleus due to the nuclear localization signal of PER and CRY. Within the nucleus the PER:CRY complexes bind BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2, inhibiting their transactivation activity and their phosphorylation. This reduces expression of the target genes of BMAL1:CLOCK and BMAL1:NPAS2 during the afternoon and evening. PER:CRY complexes also traffic out of the nucleus into the cytosol due to the nuclear export signal of PER. During the night PER:CRY complexes are polyubiquitinated and degraded, allowing the cycle to begin again. Phosphorylated PER is bound by Beta-TrCP1, a cytosolic F-box type component of some SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. CRY is bound by FBXL3, a nucleoplasmic F-box type component of some SCF E3 ubiquitin ligases. Phosphorylation of CRY1 by Adenosine monophosphate-activated kinase (AMPK) enhances degradation of CRY1. PER and CRY are subsequently polyubiquitinated and proteolyzed by the 26S proteasome.The circadian clock is cell-autonomous and some, but not all cells of the body exhibit circadian rhythms in metabolism, cell division, and gene transcription. The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) in the hypothalamus is the major clock in the body and receives its major input from light (via retinal neurons) and a minor input from nutrient intake. The SCN and other brain tissues determine waking and feeding cycles and influence the clocks in other tissues by hormone secretion and nervous stimulation. Independently of the SCN, other tissues such as liver receive inputs from signals from the brain and from nutrients
Transient increase in intracellular Ca2+ concentration after NMDA receptor activation leads to the activation of the CaMKIV via the activation of CaM-kinase kinase. CaM-kinase kinase and CaMKIV are both activated upon binding Ca2+/Calmodulin after Ca2+ influx through activated NMDA receptor
Ca2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase signal transduction, leading to the activation of PKA and phosphorylation and activation of CREB-induced transcription.\nThe isoforms of adenylate cyclase that are activated by Ca2+ in the brain are I, III and IX
Ca2+ signal generated through NMDA receptor in the post-synaptic neuron activates adenylate cyclase signal transduction, leading to the activation of PKA and phosphorylation and activation of CREB-induced transcription.\nThe isoforms of adenylate cyclase that are activated by Ca2+ in the brain are I, III and IX
Ca2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca2+ within the spine leads to phosphorylation of Cyclic AMP Response Element binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 which is involved in the transcription of genes that results in long lasting changes in the synapse. The phosphorylation of CREB by increased Ca2+ can be brought about by distinct molecular pathways that may involve MAP kinase, activation of adenylate cyclase, activation of CaMKII and/or the activation of CaMKIV
While AKT1 gene copy number, expression level and phosphorylation are often increased in cancer, only one low frequency point mutation has been repeatedly reported in cancer and functionally studied. This mutation represents a substitution of a glutamic acid residue with lysine at position 17 of AKT1, and acts by enabling AKT1 to bind PIP2. PIP2-bound AKT1 is phosphorylated by TORC2 complex and by PDPK1 that is always present at the plasma membrane, due to low affinity for PIP2. Therefore, E17K substitution abrogates the need for PI3K in AKT1 activation (Carpten et al. 2007, Landgraf et al. 2008)
Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17.Gastrin gene expression is upregulated in both a number of pre-malignant conditions and in established cancer through a variety of mechanisms. Depending on the tissue where it is expressed and the level of expression, differential processing of the polypeptide product leads to the production of different biologically active peptides. In turn, acting through the classical gastrin cholecystokinin B receptor CCK-BR, its isoforms and alternative receptors, these peptides trigger signalling pathways which influence the expression of downstream genes that affect cell survival, angiogenesis and invasion (Wank 1995, de Weerth et al