241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Involved in the negative regulation of p53 expression(PubMed:23242139) Required for the relief of p53-dependentcheckpoint mediated cell cycle arrest Binds to anddephosphorylates 'Ser-15' of TP53 and 'Ser-345' of CHEK1 whichcontributes to the functional inactivation of these proteins(PubMed:15870257, PubMed:16311512) Mediates MAPK14dephosphorylation and inactivation (PubMed:21283629) Is also animportant regulator of global heterochromatin silencing andcritical in maintaining genome integrity (By similarity)
p53 activation is induced by a number of stress signals, including DNA damage, oxidative stress and activated oncogenes. The p53 protein is employed as a transcriptional activator of p53-regulated genes. This results in three major outputs; cell cycle arrest, cellular senescence or apoptosis. Other p53-regulated gene functions communicate with adjacent cells, repair the damaged DNA or set up positive and negative feedback loops that enhance or attenuate the functions of the p53 protein and integrate these stress responses with other signal transduction pathways.
RUNX2 (CBFA1 or AML3) transcription factor, similar to other RUNX family members, RUNX1 and RUNX3, can function in complex with CBFB (CBF-beta) (Kundu et al. 2002, Yoshida et al. 2002, Otto et al. 2002). RUNX2 mainly regulates transcription of genes involved in skeletal development (reviewed in Karsenty 2008). RUNX2 is involved in development of both intramembraneous and endochondral bones through regulation of osteoblast differentiation and chondrocyte maturation, respectively. RUNX2 stimulates transcription of the BGLAP gene (Ducy and Karsenty 1995, Ducy et al. 1997), which encodes Osteocalcin, a bone-derived hormone which is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins of the bone extracellular matrix (reviewed in Karsenty and Olson 2016). RUNX2 directly controls the expression of most genes associated with osteoblast differentiation and function (Sato et al. 1998, Ducy et al. 1999, Roce et al. 2005). RUNX2-mediated transcriptional regulation of several genes involved in GPCR (G protein coupled receptor) signaling is implicated in the control of growth of osteoblast progenitors (Teplyuk et al. 2009). RUNX2 promotes chondrocyte maturation by stimulating transcription of the IHH gene, encoding Indian hedgehog (Takeda et al. 2001, Yoshida et al. 2004). Germline loss-of-function mutations of the RUNX2 gene are associated with cleidocranial dysplasia syndrome (CCD), an autosomal skeletal disorder (reviewed in Jaruga et al. 2016). The function of RUNX2 is frequently disrupted in osteosarcoma (reviewed in Mortus et al. 2014). Vitamin D3 is implicated in regulation of transcriptional activity of the RUNX2:CBFB complex (Underwood et al. 2012).
RUNX2 expression is regulated by estrogen signaling, and RUNX2 is implicated in breast cancer development and metastasis (reviewed in Wysokinski et al. 2014). Besides estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) and estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRA) (Kammerer et al. 2013), RUNX2 transcription is also regulated by TWIST1 (Yang, Yang et al. 2011), glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1) (Zhang et al. 2012), NKX3-2 (BAPX1) (Tribioli and Lufkin 1999, Lengner et al. 2005), DLX5 (Robledo et al. 2002, Lee et al. 2005) and MSX2 (Lee et al. 2005). RUNX2 can autoregulate, by directly inhibiting its own transcription (Drissi et al. 2000). Several E3 ubiquitin ligases target RUNX2 for proteasome-mediated degradation: FBXW7a (Kumar et al. 2015), STUB1 (CHIP) (Li et al. 2008), SMURF1 (Zhao et al. 2003, Yang et al. 2014), WWP1 (Jones et al. 2006), and SKP2 (Thacker et al. 2016). Besides formation of RUNX2:CBFB heterodimers, transcriptional activity of RUNX2 is regulated by binding to a number of other transcription factors, for example SOX9 (Zhou et al. 2006, TWIST1 (Bialek et al. 2004) and RB1 (Thomas et al. 2001).
RUNX2 regulates expression of several genes implicated in cell migration during normal development and bone metastasis of breast cancer cells. RUNX2 stimulates transcription of the ITGA5 gene, encoding Integrin alpha 5 (Li et al. 2016) and the ITGBL1 gene, encoding Integrin beta like protein 1 (Li et al. 2015). RUNX2 mediated transcription of the MMP13 gene, encoding Colagenase 3 (Matrix metalloproteinase 13), is stimulated by AKT mediated phosphorylation of RUNX2 (Pande et al. 2013). RUNX2 is implicated in positive regulation of AKT signaling by stimulating expression of AKT-activating TORC2 complex components MTOR and RICTOR, which may contribute to survival of breast cancer cells (Tandon et al. 2014).
RUNX2 inhibits CDKN1A transcription, thus preventing CDKN1A-induced cell cycle arrest. Phosphorylation of RUNX2 by CDK4 in response to high glucose enhances RUNX2-mediated repression of the CDKN1A gene in endothelial cells (Pierce et al. 2012). In mice, Runx2-mediated repression of Cdkn1a may contribute to the development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) (Kuo et al. 2009). RUNX2 can stimulate transcription of the LGALS3 gene, encoding Galectin-3 (Vladimirova et al. 2008, Zhang et al. 2009). Galectin 3 is expressed in myeloid progenitors and its levels increase during the maturation process (Le Marer 2000).
For a review of RUNX2 function, please refer to Long 2012 and Ito et al. 2015