241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Serine/threonine-protein kinase that acts downstream ofERK (MAPK1/ERK2 and MAPK3/ERK1) signaling and mediates mitogenicand stress-induced activation of the transcription factors CREB1,ETV1/ER81 and NR4A1/NUR77, regulates translation through RPS6 andEIF4B phosphorylation, and mediates cellular proliferation,survival, and differentiation by modulating mTOR signaling andrepressing pro-apoptotic function of BAD and DAPK1 In fibroblast,is required for EGF-stimulated phosphorylation of CREB1 andhistone H3 at 'Ser-10', which results in the subsequenttranscriptional activation of several immediate-early genes Inresponse to mitogenic stimulation (EGF and PMA), phosphorylatesand activates NR4A1/NUR77 and ETV1/ER81 transcription factors andthe cofactor CREBBP Upon insulin-derived signal, acts indirectlyon the transcription regulation of several genes byphosphorylating GSK3B at 'Ser-9' and inhibiting its activityPhosphorylates RPS6 in response to serum or EGF via an mTOR-independent mechanism and promotes translation initiation byfacilitating assembly of the preinitiation complex In response toinsulin, phosphorylates EIF4B, enhancing EIF4B affinity for theEIF3 complex and stimulating cap-dependent translation Isinvolved in the mTOR nutrient-sensing pathway by directlyphosphorylating TSC2 at 'Ser-1798', which potently inhibits TSC2ability to suppress mTOR signaling, and mediates phosphorylationof RPTOR, which regulates mTORC1 activity and may promoterapamycin-sensitive signaling independently of the PI3K/AKTpathway Mediates cell survival by phosphorylating the pro-apoptotic proteins BAD and DAPK1 and suppressing their pro-apoptotic function Promotes the survival of hepatic stellatecells by phosphorylating CEBPB in response to the hepatotoxincarbon tetrachloride (CCl4) Is involved in cell cycle regulationby phosphorylating the CDK inhibitor CDKN1B, which promotes CDKN1Bassociation with 14-3-3 proteins and prevents its translocation tothe nucleus and inhibition of G1 progression In LPS-stimulateddendritic cells, is involved in TLR4-induced macropinocytosis, andin myeloma cells, acts as effector of FGFR3-mediatedtransformation signaling, after direct phosphorylation at Tyr-529by FGFR3 Negatively regulates EGF-induced MAPK1/3 phosphorylationvia phosphorylation of SOS1 Phosphorylates SOS1 at 'Ser-1134' and'Ser-1161' that create YWHAB and YWHAE binding sites and whichcontribute to the negative regulation of MAPK1/3 phosphorylation(By similarity) Phosphorylates EPHA2 at 'Ser-897', the RPS6KA-EPHA2 signaling pathway controls cell migration (PubMed:26158630)
The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is a highly conserved module that is involved in various cellular functions, including cell proliferation, differentiation and migration. Mammals express at least four distinctly regulated groups of MAPKs, extracellular signal-related kinases (ERK)-1/2, Jun amino-terminal kinases (JNK1/2/3), p38 proteins (p38alpha/beta/gamma/delta) and ERK5, that are activated by specific MAPKKs: MEK1/2 for ERK1/2, MKK3/6 for the p38, MKK4/7 (JNKK1/2) for the JNKs, and MEK5 for ERK5. Each MAPKK, however, can be activated by more than one MAPKKK, increasing the complexity and diversity of MAPK signalling. Presumably each MAPKKK confers responsiveness to distinct stimuli. For example, activation of ERK1/2 by growth factors depends on the MAPKKK c-Raf, but other MAPKKKs may activate ERK1/2 in response to pro-inflammatory stimuli.
During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of chromosome segregation, called meiosis I and meiosis II. At meiosis I, homologous chromosomes recombine and then segregate to opposite poles, while the sister chromatids segregate from each other at meoisis II. In vertebrates, immature oocytes are arrested at the PI (prophase of meiosis I). The resumption of meiosis is stimulated by progesterone, which carries the oocyte through two consecutive M-phases (MI and MII) to a second arrest at MII. The key activity driving meiotic progression is the MPF (maturation-promoting factor), a heterodimer of CDC2 (cell division cycle 2 kinase) and cyclin B. In PI-arrested oocytes, MPF is initially inactive and is activated by the dual-specificity CDC25C phosphatase as the result of new synthesis of Mos induced by progesterone. MPF activation mediates the transition from the PI arrest to MI. The subsequent decrease in MPF levels, required to exit from MI into interkinesis, is induced by a negative feedback loop, where CDC2 brings about the activation of the APC (anaphase-promoting complex), which mediates destruction of cyclin B. Re-activation of MPF for MII requires re-accumulation of high levels of cyclin B as well as the inactivation of the APC by newly synthesized Emi2 and other components of the CSF (cytostatic factor), such as cyclin E or high levels of Mos. CSF antagonizes the ubiquitin ligase activity of the APC, preventing cyclin B destruction and meiotic exit until fertilization occurs. Fertilization triggers a transient increase in cytosolic free Ca2+, which leads to CSF inactivation and cyclin B destruction through the APC. Then eggs are released from MII into the first embryonic cell cycle.
The mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 contains mTOR, Raptor, PRAS40, Deptor, mLST8, Tel2 and Tti1. mTORC1 is activated by the presence of growth factors, amino acids, energy status, stress and oxygen levels to regulate several biological processes, including lipid metabolism, autophagy, protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. On the other hand, mTORC2, which consists of mTOR, mSin1, Rictor, Protor, Deptor, mLST8, Tel2 and Tti1, responds to growth factors and controls cytoskeletal organization, metabolism and survival.
Thermogenesis is essential for warm-blooded animals, ensuring normal cellular and physiological function under conditions of environmental challenge. Thermogenesis in brown and beige adipose tissue is mainly controlled by norepinephrine, which is released from sympathetic nervous system in response to cold or dietary stimuli. The mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) is responsible for the process whereby chemical energy is converted into heat in these adipocytes. Activation of these adipocytes leads to an increase in calorie consumption and is expected to improve overweight conditions, providing a potential strategy for treating obesity and its related metabolic disorders.
Hippocampal long-term potentiation (LTP), a long-lasting increase in synaptic efficacy, is the molecular basis for learning and memory. Tetanic stimulation of afferents in the CA1 region of the hippocampus induces glutamate release and activation of glutamate receptors in dendritic spines. A large increase in [Ca2+]i resulting from influx through NMDA receptors leads to constitutive activation of CaM kinase II (CaM KII) . Constitutively active CaM kinase II phosphorylates AMPA receptors, resulting in potentiation of the ionic conductance of AMPA receptors. Early-phase LTP (E-LTP) expression is due, in part, to this phosphorylation of the AMPA receptor. It is hypothesized that postsynaptic Ca2+ increases generated through NMDA receptors activate several signal transduction pathways including the Erk/MAP kinase and cAMP regulatory pathways. The convergence of these pathways at the level of the CREB/CRE transcriptional pathway may increase expression of a family of genes required for late-phase LTP (L-LTP).
Neurotrophins are a family of trophic factors involved in differentiation and survival of neural cells. The neurotrophin family consists of nerve growth factor (NGF), brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), and neurotrophin 4 (NT-4). Neurotrophins exert their functions through engagement of Trk tyrosine kinase receptors or p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR). Neurotrophin/Trk signaling is regulated by connecting a variety of intracellular signaling cascades, which include MAPK pathway, PI-3 kinase pathway, and PLC pathway, transmitting positive signals like enhanced survival and growth. On the other hand, p75NTR transmits both positive and nagative signals. These signals play an important role for neural development and additional higher-order activities such as learning and memory.
Xenopus oocytes are naturally arrested at G2 of meiosis I. Exposure to either insulin/IGF-1 or the steroid hormone progesterone breaks this arrest and induces resumption of the two meiotic division cycles and maturation of the oocyte into a mature, fertilizable egg. This process is termed oocyte maturation. The transition is accompanied by an increase in maturation promoting factor (MPF or Cdc2/cyclin B) which precedes germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD). Most reports point towards the Mos-MEK1-ERK2 pathway [where ERK is an extracellular signal-related protein kinase, MEK is a MAPK/ERK kinase and Mos is a p42(MAPK) activator] and the polo-like kinase/CDC25 pathway as responsible for the activation of MPF in meiosis, most likely triggered by a decrease in cAMP.
Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms underlying insulin resistance are shown: (a) increased phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) protein through serine/threonine kinases, such as JNK1 and IKKB, and protein kinase C, (b) increased IRS-1 proteasome degradation via mTOR signaling pathway, (c) decreased activation of signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT, (d) increase in activity of phosphatases including PTPs, PTEN, and PP2A. Regulatory actions such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of intracellular lipid derivatives (diacylglycrol and ceramides), and inflammation (via IL-6 and TNFA) contribute to these mechanisms. Consequently, insulin resistance causes reduced GLUT4 translocation, resulting in glucose takeup and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle as well as increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen synthesis in liver. At the bottom of the diagram, interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation is shown. Studies suggested that elevated O-GlcNAc level was correlated to high glucose-induced insulin resistance. Donor UDP-GlcNAc is induced through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase. Elevation of O-GlcNAc modification alters phosphorylation and function of key insulin signaling proteins including IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, Akt and other transcription factor and cofactors, resulting in the attenuation of insulin signaling cascade.
ERK/MAPK kinases have a number of targets within the nucleus, usually transcription factors or other kinases. The best known targets, ELK1, ETS1, ATF2, MITF, MAPKAPK2, MSK1, RSK1/2/3 and MEF2 are annotated here
Nerve growth factor (NGF) activates multiple signalling pathways that mediate the phosphorylation of CREB at the critical regulatory site, serine 133. CREB phosphorylation at serine 133 is a crucial event in neurotrophin signalling, being mediated by ERK/RSK, ERK/MSK1 and p38/MAPKAPK2 pathways. Several kinases, such as MSK1, RSK1/2/3 (MAPKAPK1A/B/C), and MAPKAPK2, are able to directly phosphorylate CREB at S133. MSK1 is also able to activate ATF (Cyclic-AMP-dependent transcription factor). However, the NGF-induced CREB phosphorylation appears to correlate better with activation of MSK1 rather than RSK1/2/3, or MAPKAPK2. In retrograde signalling, activation of CREB occurs within 20 minutes after neurotrophin stimulation of distal axons
The culture medium of senescent cells in enriched in secreted proteins when compared with the culture medium of quiescent i.e. presenescent cells and these secreted proteins constitute the so-called senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP), also known as the senescence messaging secretome (SMS). SASP components include inflammatory and immune-modulatory cytokines (e.g. IL6 and IL8), growth factors (e.g. IGFBPs), shed cell surface molecules (e.g. TNF receptors) and survival factors. While the SASP exhibits a wide ranging profile, it is not significantly affected by the type of senescence trigger (oncogenic signalling, oxidative stress or DNA damage) or the cell type (epithelial vs. mesenchymal) (Coppe et al. 2008). However, as both oxidative stress and oncogenic signaling induce DNA damage, the persistent DNA damage may be a deciding SASP initiator (Rodier et al. 2009). SASP components function in an autocrine manner, reinforcing the senescent phenotype (Kuilman et al. 2008, Acosta et al. 2008), and in the paracrine manner, where they may promote epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and malignancy in the nearby premalignant or malignant cells (Coppe et al. 2008). Interleukin-1-alpha (IL1A), a minor SASP component whose transcription is stimulated by the AP-1 (FOS:JUN) complex (Bailly et al. 1996), can cause paracrine senescence through IL1 and inflammasome signaling (Acosta et al. 2013).
Here, transcriptional regulatory processes that mediate the SASP are annotated. DNA damage triggers ATM-mediated activation of TP53, resulting in the increased level of CDKN1A (p21). CDKN1A-mediated inhibition of CDK2 prevents phosphorylation and inactivation of the Cdh1:APC/C complex, allowing it to ubiquitinate and target for degradation EHMT1 and EHMT2 histone methyltransferases. As EHMT1 and EHMT2 methylate and silence the promoters of IL6 and IL8 genes, degradation of these methyltransferases relieves the inhibition of IL6 and IL8 transcription (Takahashi et al. 2012). In addition, oncogenic RAS signaling activates the CEBPB (C/EBP-beta) transcription factor (Nakajima et al. 1993, Lee et al. 2010), which binds promoters of IL6 and IL8 genes and stimulates their transcription (Kuilman et al. 2008, Lee et al. 2010). CEBPB also stimulates the transcription of CDKN2B (p15-INK4B), reinforcing the cell cycle arrest (Kuilman et al. 2008). CEBPB transcription factor has three isoforms, due to three alternative translation start sites. The CEBPB-1 isoform (C/EBP-beta-1) seems to be exclusively involved in growth arrest and senescence, while the CEBPB-2 (C/EBP-beta-2) isoform may promote cellular proliferation (Atwood and Sealy 2010 and 2011). IL6 signaling stimulates the transcription of CEBPB (Niehof et al. 2001), creating a positive feedback loop (Kuilman et al. 2009, Lee et al. 2010). NF-kappa-B transcription factor is also activated in senescence (Chien et al. 2011) through IL1 signaling (Jimi et al. 1996, Hartupee et al. 2008, Orjalo et al. 2009). NF-kappa-B binds IL6 and IL8 promoters and cooperates with CEBPB transcription factor in the induction of IL6 and IL8 transcription (Matsusaka et al. 1993, Acosta et al. 2008). Besides IL6 and IL8, their receptors are also upregulated in senescence (Kuilman et al. 2008, Acosta et al. 2008) and IL6 and IL8 may be master regulators of the SASP.
IGFBP7 is also an SASP component that is upregulated in response to oncogenic RAS-RAF-MAPK signaling and oxidative stress, as its transcription is directly stimulated by the AP-1 (JUN:FOS) transcription factor. IGFBP7 negatively regulates RAS-RAF (BRAF)-MAPK signaling and is important for the establishment of senescence in melanocytes (Wajapeyee et al. 2008).
Please refer to Young and Narita 2009 for a recent review
L1 functions in many aspects of neuronal development including axon outgrowth and neuronal migration. These functions require coordination between L1 and the actin cytoskeleton. F-actin continuously moves in a retrograde direction from the P-(peripheral) domain of the growth cone towards the growth cone's C-(central) domain. L1, attached to the actin cytoskeleton via membrane cytoskeletal linkers (MCKs) such as ankyrins (Ankyrin-G, -B and -R) and members of the ERMs (ezrin, radixin, and moesin) family, link this retrograde F-actin flow with extracellular immobile ligands.Forward translocation of growth cone requires not only the CAM-actin linkage but also a gradient of cell substrate adhesion (strong adhesion at the front and weak adhesion at the rear) so that the cytoskeletal machinery is able to pull the cell forward as attachments at the rear are released. This asymmetry is achieved in part by internalizing L1 molecules as they are moved to the rear of the growth cone coupled to retrograde F-actin flow and recycling them to the leading edge plasma membrane.L1 internalization is mediated by phosphorylation and dephosphorylation. The L1 cytoplasmic domain (L1CD) carries an endocytic or sorting motif, YRSLE, that is recognized by the clathrin associated adaptor protein-2 (AP-2). AP-2 binds the YRSLE motif only when its tyrosine is not phosphorylated and triggers L1 endocytosis. SRC kinase associated with lipid rafts in the P-domain membrane phosphorylates L1 molecules on tyrosine-1176, stabilizing them in the plasma membrane. L1 endocytosis is triggered by the dephosphorylation of Y1176 within the C domain. Some of these internalized L1 molecules are transported in an anterograde direction along microtubules for reuse in the leading edge
Ca2+ influx through the NMDA receptor initiates subsequent molecular pathways that have a defined role in establishing long-lasting synaptic changes. The molecular signaling initiated by a rise in Ca2+ within the spine leads to phosphorylation of Cyclic AMP Response Element binding protein (CREB) at serine 133 which is involved in the transcription of genes that results in long lasting changes in the synapse. The phosphorylation of CREB by increased Ca2+ can be brought about by distinct molecular pathways that may involve MAP kinase, activation of adenylate cyclase, activation of CaMKII and/or the activation of CaMKIV
Ribosomal S6 kinase has four isoforms in humans and each of the isoforms have sic conserved phosphorylation sites (S221, S363, S380,S749, T359,T573) out of which four are important for its activity (S221, S363, 380,T573).Phosphorylation and activation of ribosomal S6 Kinase (RSK) occurs at the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and in the nucleus. Phosphorylation of RSK first occurs at residue T573 followed by S363 an S380 by activated MAPK/ERK . This form is then phosphorylated by PDK1, which is active in the plasm membrane by an autophosphorylation event
Gastrin is a hormone whose main function is to stimulate secretion of hydrochloric acid by the gastric mucosa, which results in gastrin formation inhibition. This hormone also acts as a mitogenic factor for gastrointestinal epithelial cells. Gastrin has two biologically active peptide forms, G34 and G17.Gastrin gene expression is upregulated in both a number of pre-malignant conditions and in established cancer through a variety of mechanisms. Depending on the tissue where it is expressed and the level of expression, differential processing of the polypeptide product leads to the production of different biologically active peptides. In turn, acting through the classical gastrin cholecystokinin B receptor CCK-BR, its isoforms and alternative receptors, these peptides trigger signalling pathways which influence the expression of downstream genes that affect cell survival, angiogenesis and invasion (Wank 1995, de Weerth et al