241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Key regulator of entry into cell division that acts as atumor suppressor Promotes G0-G1 transition when phosphorylated byCDK3/cyclin-C Acts as a transcription repressor of E2F1 targetgenes The underphosphorylated, active form of RB1 interacts withE2F1 and represses its transcription activity, leading to cellcycle arrest Directly involved in heterochromatin formation bymaintaining overall chromatin structure and, in particular, thatof constitutive heterochromatin by stabilizing histonemethylation Recruits and targets histone methyltransferasesSUV39H1, KMT5B and KMT5C, leading to epigenetic transcriptionalrepression Controls histone H4 'Lys-20' trimethylation Inhibitsthe intrinsic kinase activity of TAF1 Mediates transcriptionalrepression by SMARCA4/BRG1 by recruiting a histone deacetylase(HDAC) complex to the c-FOS promoter In resting neurons,transcription of the c-FOS promoter is inhibited by BRG1-dependentrecruitment of a phospho-RB1-HDAC1 repressor complex Upon calciuminflux, RB1 is dephosphorylated by calcineurin, which leads torelease of the repressor complex (By similarity) In case of viralinfections, interactions with SV40 large T antigen, HPV E7 proteinor adenovirus E1A protein induce the disassembly of RB1-E2F1complex thereby disrupting RB1's activity
Endocrine therapy is a key treatment strategy to control or eradicate hormone-responsive breast cancer. The most commonly used endocrine therapy agents are selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs, e.g. tamoxifen), estrogen synthesis inhibitors (e.g. aromatase inhibitors (AIs) such as anastrozole, letrozole, and exemestane), and selective estrogen receptor down-regulators (SERDs, e.g. fulvestrant). However, resistance to these agents has become a major clinical obstacle. Mechanisms of endocrine resistance include loss of ER-alpha expression, altered expression of coactivators or coregulators that play a critical role in ER-mediated gene transcription, ligand-independent growth factor signaling cascades that activate kinases and ER-phosphorylation, altered availability of active tamoxifen metabolites regulated by drug-metabolizing enzymes, such as CYP2D6, and deregulation of the cell cycle and apoptotic machinery.
Mitotic cell cycle progression is accomplished through a reproducible sequence of events, DNA replication (S phase) and mitosis (M phase) separated temporally by gaps known as G1 and G2 phases. Cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) are key regulatory enzymes, each consisting of a catalytic CDK subunit and an activating cyclin subunit. CDKs regulate the cell's progression through the phases of the cell cycle by modulating the activity of key substrates. Downstream targets of CDKs include transcription factor E2F and its regulator Rb. Precise activation and inactivation of CDKs at specific points in the cell cycle are required for orderly cell division. Cyclin-CDK inhibitors (CKIs), such as p16Ink4a, p15Ink4b, p27Kip1, and p21Cip1, are involved in the negative regulation of CDK activities, thus providing a pathway through which the cell cycle is negatively regulated.Eukaryotic cells respond to DNA damage by activating signaling pathways that promote cell cycle arrest and DNA repair. In response to DNA damage, the checkpoint kinase ATM phosphorylates and activates Chk2, which in turn directly phosphorylates and activates p53 tumor suppressor protein. p53 and its transcriptional targets play an important role in both G1 and G2 checkpoints. ATR-Chk1-mediated protein degradation of Cdc25A protein phosphatase is also a mechanism conferring intra-S-phase checkpoint activation.
Cellular senescence is a state of irreversible cellular arrest and can be triggered by a number of factors, such as telomere shortening, oncogene activation, irradiation, DNA damage and oxidative stress. It is characterized by enlarged flattened morphology, senescence-associated beta-galactosidase (SA-b-gal) activity, secretion of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and matrix metalloproteinases, as part of the senescence-associated secretory phenotype (SASP). Cellular senescence is functionally associated with many biological processes including aging, tumor suppression, placental biology, embryonic development, and wound healing.
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to excess glucocorticoids via exogenous and endogenous sources. The typical clinical features of CS are related to hypercortisolism and include accumulation of central fat, moon facies, neuromuscular weakness, osteoporosis or bone fractures, metabolic complications, and mood changes. Traditionally, endogenous CS is classified as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent (about 80%) or ACTH- independent (about 20%). Among ACTH-dependent forms, pituitary corticotroph adenoma (Cushing's disease) is most common. Most pituitary tumors are sporadic, resulting from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. Recently recurrent activating somatic driver mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 gene (USP8) were identified in almost half of corticotroph adenoma. Germline mutations in MEN1 (encoding menin), AIP (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein), PRKAR1A (encoding cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I alpha regulatory subunit) and CDKN1B (encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; also known as p27 Kip1) have been identified in familial forms of pituitary adenomas. However, the frequency of familial pituitary adenomas is less than 5% in patients with pituitary adenomas. Among ACTH-independent CS, adrenal adenoma is most common. Rare adrenal causes of CS include primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) or primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is an enveloped virus and contains a partially double-stranded relaxed circular DNA (RC-DNA) genome. After entry into hepatocytes, HBV RC-DNA is transported to the nucleus and converted into a covalently closed circular molecule cccDNA. The cccDNA is the template for transcription of all viral RNAs including the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA), encoding for 7 viral proteins: large, middle, and small envelope proteins (LHBs, MHBs, and SHBs) that form the surface antigen (HBsAg), the core antigen (HBcAg), the e antigen (HBeAg), the HBV polymerase, and the regulatory protein X (HBx). The pgRNA interacts with the viral polymerase protein to initiate the encapsidation into the core particles. Through endoplasmic reticulum, the core particles finish assembling with the envelope proteins and are released. HBV infection leads to a wide spectrum of liver diseases raging from chronic hepatitis, cirrhosis to hepatocellular carcinoma. The mechanism of liver injury is still not clear. However, HBV proteins target host proteins, involved in a variety of functions, thus regulating transcription, cellular signaling cascades, proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis.
Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is an enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus that is a member of beta-herpesvirus family. HCMV is best known for causing significant morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised populations. As with other herpesviruses, HCMV gB and gH/gL envelope glycoproteins are essential for virus entry. HCMV gB could activate the PDGFRA, and induce activation of the oncogenic PI3-K/AKT pathway. Though it is unlikely that HCMV by itself can act as an oncogenic factor, HCMV may have an oncomodulatory role, to catalyze an oncogenic process that has already been initiated. US28, one of the four HCMV-encoded vGPCRs (US27, US28, UL33 and UL78), also has a specific role in the oncomodulatory properties. In addition, HCMV has developed numerous mechanisms for manipulating the host immune system. The virally encoded US2, US3, US6 and US11 gene products all interfere with major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I antigen presentation. HCMV encodes several immediate early (IE) antiapoptotic proteins (IE1, IE2, vMIA and vICA). These proteins might avoid immune clearance of infected tumor cells by cytotoxic lymphocytes and NK cells.
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV infect mucoal and cutaneous epithelium resulting in several types of pathologies, most notably, cervical cancer. All types of HPV share a common genomic structure and encode eight proteins: E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 (early) and L1 and L2 (late). It has been demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication. The functions of the E4 protein is not yet fully understood. E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins. E5 inhibits the V-ATPase, prolonging EGFR signaling and thereby promoting cell proliferation. The expression of E6 and E7 not only inhibits the tumor suppressors p53 and Rb, but also alters additional signalling pathways. Among these pathways, PI3K/Akt signalling cascade plays a very important role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The L1 and L2 proteins form icosahedral capsids for progeny virion generation.
Human T-cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) is a pathogenic retrovirus that is associated with adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL). It is also strongly implicated in non-neoplastic chronic inflammatory diseases such as HTLV-1-associated myelopathy/tropical spastic paraparesis (HAM/TSP). Expression of Tax, a viral regulatory protein is critical to the pathogenesis. Tax is a transcriptional co-factor that interfere several signaling pathways related to anti-apoptosis or cell proliferation. The modulation of the signaling by Tax involve its binding to transcription factors like CREB/ATF, NF-kappa B, SRF, and NFAT.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the most recently identified human tumor virus, and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Like all other herpesviruses, KSHV displays two modes of life cycle, latency and lytic replication, which are characterized by the patterns of viral gene expression. Genes expressed in latency (LANA, v-cyclin, v-FLIP, Kaposins A, B and C and viral miRNAs) are mainly thought to facilitate the establishment of life long latency in its host and survival against the host innate, and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms. Among the viral proteins shown to be expressed during lytic replication are potent signaling molecules such as vGPCR, vIL6, vIRFs, vCCLs, K1 and K15, which have been implicated experimentally in the angiogenic and inflammatory phenotype observed in KS lesions. Several of these latent viral and lytic proteins are known to transform host cells, linking KSHV with the development of severe human malignancies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. EBV has been linked to a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other hematologic cancers, like Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma in HIV patients, and posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV expresses a small subset of genes, including 6 nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP), 3 latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A, and -2B), 2 small noncoding RNAs (EBER-1 and 2). On the basis of these latent gene expression, three different latency patterns associated with the types of cancers are recognized.
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
Infiltrating ductal adenocarcinoma is the most common malignancy of the pancreas. When most investigators use the term 'pancreatic cancer' they are referring to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Normal duct epithelium progresses to infiltrating cancer through a series of histologically defined precursors (PanINs). The overexpression of HER-2/neu and activating point mutations in the K-ras gene occur early, inactivation of the p16 gene at an intermediate stage, and the inactivation of p53, SMAD4, and BRCA2 occur relatively late. Activated K-ras engages multiple effector pathways. Although EGF receptors are conventionally regarded as upstream activators of RAS proteins, they can also act as RAS signal transducers via RAS-induced autocrine activation of the EGFR family ligands. Moreover, PDA shows extensive genomic instability and aneuploidy. Telomere attrition and mutations in p53 and BRCA2 are likely to contribute to these phenotypes. Inactivation of the SMAD4 tumour suppressor gene leads to loss of the inhibitory influence of the transforming growth factor-beta signalling pathway.
Gliomas are the most common of the primary brain tumors and account for more than 40% of all central nervous system neoplasms. Gliomas include tumours that are composed predominantly of astrocytes (astrocytomas), oligodendrocytes (oligodendrogliomas), mixtures of various glial cells (for example,oligoastrocytomas) and ependymal cells (ependymomas). The most malignant form of infiltrating astrocytoma - glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) - is one of the most aggressive human cancers. GBM may develop de novo (primary glioblastoma) or by progression from low-grade or anaplastic astrocytoma (secondary glioblastoma). Primary glioblastomas develop in older patients and typically show genetic alterations (EGFR amplification, p16/INK4a deletion, and PTEN mutations) at frequencies of 24-34%. Secondary glioblastomas develop in younger patients and frequently show overexpression of PDGF and CDK4 as well as p53 mutations (65%) and loss of Rb playing major roles in such transformations. Loss of PTEN has been implicated in both pathways, although it is much more common in the pathogenesis of primary GBM.
Prostate cancer constitutes a major health problem in Western countries. It is the most frequently diagnosed cancer among men and the second leading cause of male cancer deaths. The identification of key molecular alterations in prostate-cancer cells implicates carcinogen defenses (GSTP1), growth-factor-signaling pathways (NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27), and androgens (AR) as critical determinants of the phenotype of prostate-cancer cells. Glutathione S-transferases (GSTP1) are detoxifying enzymes. Cells of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia, devoid of GSTP1, undergo genomic damage mediated by carcinogens. NKX3.1, PTEN, and p27 regulate the growth and survival of prostate cells in the normal prostate. Inadequate levels of PTEN and NKX3.1 lead to a reduction in p27 levels and to increased proliferation and decreased apoptosis. Androgen receptor (AR) is a transcription factor that is normally activated by its androgen ligand. During androgen withdrawal therapy, the AR signal transduction pathway also could be activated by amplification of the AR gene, by AR gene mutations, or by altered activity of AR coactivators. Through these mechanisms, tumor cells lead to the emergence of androgen-independent prostate cancer.
Melanoma is a form of skin cancer that has a poor prognosis and which is on the rise in Western populations. Melanoma arises from the malignant transformation of pigment-producing cells, melanocytes. The only known environmental risk factor is exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light and in people with fair skin the risk is greatly increased. Melanoma pathogenesis is also driven by genetic factors. Oncogenic NRAS mutations activate both effector pathways Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-Akt. The Raf-MEK-ERK pathway may also be activated via mutations in the BRAF gene. The PI3K-Akt pathway may be activated through loss or mutation of the inhibitory tumor suppressor gene PTEN. These mutations arise early during melanoma pathogenesis and are preserved throughout tumor progression. Melanoma development has been shown to be strongly associated with inactivation of the p16INK4a/cyclin dependent kinases 4 and 6/retinoblastoma protein (p16INK4a/CDK4,6/pRb) and p14ARF/human double minute 2/p53 (p14ARF/HMD2/p53) tumor suppressor pathways. MITF and TP53 are implicated in further melanoma progression.
The urothelium covers the luminal surface of almost the entire urinary tract, extending from the renal pelvis, through the ureter and bladder, to the proximal urethra. The majority of urothelial carcinoma are bladder carcinomas, and urothelial carcinomas of the renal pelvis and ureter account for only approximately 7% of the total. Urothelial tumours arise and evolve through divergent phenotypic pathways. Some tumours progress from urothelial hyperplasia to low-grade non-invasive superficial papillary tumours. More aggressive variants arise either from flat, high-grade carcinoma in situ (CIS) and progress to invasive tumours, or they arise de novo as invasive tumours. Low-grade papillary tumors frequently show a constitutive activation of the receptor tyrosine kinase-Ras pathway, exhibiting activating mutations in the HRAS and fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3) genes. In contrast, CIS and invasive tumors frequently show alterations in the TP53 and RB genes and pathways. Invasion and metastases are promoted by several factors that alter the tumour microenvironment, including the aberrant expression of E-cadherins (E-cad), matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), angiogenic factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF).
Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) is a clonal myeloproliferative disorder of a pluripotent stem cell. The natural history of CML has a triphasic clinical course comprising of an initial chronic phase (CP), which is characterized by expansion of functionally normal myeloid cells, followed by an accelerated phase (AP) and finally a more aggressive blast phase (BP), with loss of terminal differentiation capacity. On the cellular level, CML is associated with a specific chromosome abnormality, the t(9; 22) reciprocal translocation that forms the Philadelphia (Ph) chromosome. The Ph chromosome is the result of a molecular rearrangement between the c-ABL proto-oncogene on chromosome 9 and the BCR (breakpoint cluster region) gene on chromosome 22. The BCR/ABL fusion gene encodes p210 BCR/ABL, an oncoprotein, which, unlike the normal p145 c-Abl, has constitutive tyrosine kinase activity and is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm. While fusion of c-ABL and BCR is believed to be the primary cause of the chronic phase of CML, progression to blast crisis requires other molecular changes. Common secondary abnormalities include mutations in TP53, RB, and p16/INK4A, or overexpression of genes such as EVI1. Additional chromosome translocations are also observed,such as t(3;21)(q26;q22), which generates AML1-EVI1.
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Small cell lung carcinoma (SCLC) is a highly aggressive neoplasm, which accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancer cases. Molecular mechanisms altered in SCLC include induced expression of oncogene, MYC, and loss of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, PTEN, RB, and FHIT. The overexpression of MYC proteins in SCLC is largely a result of gene amplification. Such overexpression leads to more rapid proliferation and loss of terminal differentiation. Mutation or deletion of p53 or PTEN can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The retinoblastoma gene RB1 encodes a nuclear phosphoprotein that helps to regulate cell-cycle progression. The fragile histidine triad gene FHIT encodes the enzyme diadenosine triphosphate hydrolase, which is thought to have an indirect role in proapoptosis and cell-cycle control.
Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer death among men and women in industrialized countries. Non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) accounts for approximately 85% of lung cancer and represents a heterogeneous group of cancers, consisting mainly of squamous cell (SCC), adeno (AC) and large-cell carcinoma. Molecular mechanisms altered in NSCLC include activation of oncogenes, such as K-RAS, EGFR and EML4-ALK, and inactivation of tumorsuppressor genes, such as p53, p16INK4a, RAR-beta, and RASSF1. Point mutations within the K-RAS gene inactivate GTPase activity and the p21-RAS protein continuously transmits growth signals to the nucleus. Mutations or overexpression of EGFR leads to a proliferative advantage. EML4-ALK fusion leads to constitutive ALK activation, which causes cell proliferation, invasion, and inhibition of apoptosis. Inactivating mutation of p53 can lead to more rapid proliferation and reduced apoptosis. The protein encoded by the p16INK4a inhibits formation of CDK-cyclin-D complexes by competitive binding of CDK4 and CDK6. Loss of p16INK4a expression is a common feature of NSCLC. RAR-beta is a nuclear receptor that bears vitamin-A-dependent transcriptional activity. RASSF1A is able to form heterodimers with Nore-1, an RAS effector.Therefore loss of RASSF1A might shift the balance of RAS activity towards a growth-promoting effect.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major type of primary liver cancer and one of the rare human neoplasms etiologically linked to viral factors. It has been shown that, after HBV/HCV infection and alcohol or aflatoxin B1 exposure, genetic and epigenetic changes occur. The recurrent mutated genes were found to be highly enriched in multiple key driver signaling processes, including telomere maintenance, TP53, cell cycle regulation, the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (CTNNB1 and AXIN1), the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Recent studies using whole-exome sequencing have revealed recurrent mutations in new driver genes involved in the chromatin remodelling (ARID1A and ARID2) and the oxidative stress (NFE2L2) pathways.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the world's most common cancers. According to Lauren's histological classification gastric cancer is divided into two distinct histological groups - the intestinal and diffuse types. Several genetic changes have been identified in intestinal-type GC. The intestinal metaplasia is characterized by mutations in p53 gene, reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and hTERT expression. Gastric adenomas furthermore display mutations in the APC gene, reduced p27 expression and cyclin E amplification. In addition, amplification and overexpression of c-ErbB2, reduced TGF-beta receptor type I (TGFBRI) expression and complete loss of p27 expression are commonly observed in more advanced GC. The main molecular changes observed in diffuse-type GCs include loss of E-cadherin function by mutations in CDH1 and amplification of MET and FGFR2F.
During S phase of the cell cycle, RB1 is dephosphorylated by the PP2A protein phosphatase complex. Unphosphorylated RB1 associates with DNA damage sites in S phase, preventing initiation of DNA replication from these sites (Knudsen et al. 2000, Avni et al. 2003)
In mitotic prophase, the action of the condensin II complex enables initial chromosome condensation.The condensin II complex subunit NCAPD3 binds monomethylated histone H4 (H4K20me1), thereby associating with chromatin (Liu et al. 2010). Binding of the condensin II complex to chromatin is partially controlled by the presence of RB1 (Longworth et al. 2008). Two mechanisms contribute to the accumulation of H4K20me1 at mitotic entry. First, the activity of SETD8 histone methyltransferase peaks at G2/M transition (Nishioka et al. 2002, Rice et al. 2002, Wu et al. 2010). Second, the complex of CDK1 and cyclin B1 (CDK1:CCNB1) phosphorylates PHF8 histone demethylase at the start of mitosis, removing it from chromatin (Liu et al. 2010).Condensin II complex needs to be phosphorylated by the CDK1:CCNB1 complex, and then phosphorylated by PLK1, in order to efficiently condense prophase chromosomes (Abe et al. 2011)
The process of DNA damage/telomere stress induced senescence culminates in the formation of senescence associated heterochromatin foci (SAHF). These foci represent facultative heterochromatin that is formed in senescent cells. They contribute to the repression of proliferation promoting genes and play an important role in the permanent cell cycle exit that characterizes senescence (Narita et al. 2003 and 2006). SAHF appear as compacted, punctate DAPI stained foci of DNA. Each chromosome is condensed into a single SAH focus, with telomeric and centromeric chromatin located predominantly at its periphery (Funayama et al. 2006, Zhang et al. 2007).
An evolutionarily conserved protein complex of HIRA, ASF1A, UBN1 and CABIN1 plays a crucial role in the SAHF formation. As cells approach senescence, HIRA, ASF1A, UBN1 and CABIN1 accumulate at the PML bodies (Zhang et al. 2005, Banumathy et al. 2009, Rai et al. 2011). PML bodies are punctate nuclear structures that contain PML protein and numerous other proteins and are proposed to be the sites of assembly of macromolecular regulatory complexes and protein modification (Fogal et al. 2000, Guo et al. 2000, Pearson et al. 2000). Recruitment of HIRA to PML bodies coincides with altered chromatin structure and deposition of macroH2A histone H2A variant onto chromatin. As cells become senescent, HIRA, ASF1A, UBN1 and CABIN1 relocate from PML bodies to SAHF. HIRA accumulation at PML bodies is RB1 and TP53 independent, but may require phosphorylation of HIRA serine S697 by GSK3B (Ye, Zerlanko, Kennedy et al. 2007). SAHF formation itself, however, requires functional RB1 and TP53 pathways (Ye, Zerlanko, Zhang et al. 2007).
SAHF contain H3K9Me mark, characteristic of trancriptionally silent chromatin, and HP1, marcoH2A histone H2A variant and HMGA proteins are also components of SAHF (Narita et al. 2006), besides the HIRA:ASF1A:UBN1:CABIN1 complex. A yet unidentified H3K9Me histone methyltransferase may be recruited to SAHF by UBN1 (Banumathy et al. 2009). One of the functions of the HIRA:ASF1A:UBN1:CABIN1 complex is to deposit histone H3.3. variant to chromatin, which influences gene expression (Zhang et al. 2007, Rai et al. 2011).
Further studies are needed to fully elucidate the mechanism of SAHF formation and mechanism by which SAHF promote cell senescence
Oncogene-induced senescence is triggered by high level of RAS/RAF/MAPK signaling that can be caused, for example, by oncogenic mutations in RAS or RAF proteins, or by oncogenic mutations in growth factor receptors, such as EGFR, that act upstream of RAS/RAF/MAPK cascade. Oncogene-induced senescence can also be triggered by high transcriptional activity of E2F1, E2F2 or E2F3 which can be caused, for example, by the loss-of-function of RB1 tumor suppressor.Oncogenic signals trigger transcription of CDKN2A locus tumor suppressor genes: p16-INK4A and p14-ARF. p16-INK4A and p14-ARF share exons 2 and 3, but are expressed from different promoters and use different reading frames (Quelle et al. 1995). Therefore, while their mRNAs are homologous and are both translationally inhibited by miR-24 microRNA (Lal et al. 2008, To et al. 2012), they share no similarity at the amino acid sequence level and perform distinct functions in the cell. p16-INK4A acts as the inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6 which phosphorylate and inhibit RB1 protein thereby promoting G1 to S transition and cell cycle progression (Serrano et al. 1993). Increased p16-INK4A level leads to hypophosphorylation of RB1, allowing RB1 to inhibit transcription of E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3-target genes that are needed for cell cycle progression, which results in cell cycle arrest in G1 phase. p14-ARF binds and destabilizes MDM2 ubiquitin ligase (Zhang et al. 1998), responsible for ubiquitination and degradation of TP53 (p53) tumor suppressor protein (Wu et al. 1993, Fuchs et al. 1998, Fang et al. 2000). Therefore, increased p14-ARF level leads to increased level of TP53 and increased expression of TP53 target genes, such as p21, which triggers p53-mediated cell cycle arrest and, depending on other factors, may also lead to p53-mediated apoptosis. CDKN2B locus, which encodes an inhibitor of CDK4 and CDK6, p15-INK4B, is located in the vicinity of CDKN2A locus, at the chromosome band 9p21. p15-INK4B, together with p16-INK4A, contributes to senescence of human T-lymphocytes (Erickson et al. 1998) and mouse fibroblasts (Malumbres et al. 2000). SMAD3, activated by TGF-beta-1 signaling, controls senescence in the mouse multistage carcinogenesis model through regulation of MYC and p15-INK4B gene expression (Vijayachandra et al. 2003). TGF-beta-induced p15-INK4B expression is also important for the senescence of hepatocellular carcinoma cell lines (Senturk et al. 2010).
MAP kinases MAPK1 (ERK2) and MAPK3 (ERK1), which are activated by RAS signaling, phosphorylate ETS1 and ETS2 transcription factors in the nucleus (Yang et al. 1996, Seidel et al. 2002, Foulds et al. 2004, Nelson et al. 2010). Phosphorylated ETS1 and ETS2 are able to bind RAS response elements (RREs) in the CDKN2A locus and stimulate p16-INK4A transcription (Ohtani et al. 2004). At the same time, activated ERKs (MAPK1 i.e. ERK2 and MAPK3 i.e. ERK1) phosphorylate ERF, the repressor of ETS2 transcription, which leads to translocation of ERF to the cytosol and increased transcription of ETS2 (Sgouras et al. 1995, Le Gallic et al. 2004). ETS2 can be sequestered and inhibited by binding to ID1, resulting in inhibition of p16-INK4A transcription (Ohtani et al. 2004).Transcription of p14-ARF is stimulated by binding of E2F transcription factors (E2F1, E2F2 or E2F3) in complex with SP1 to p14-ARF promoter (Parisi et al. 2002).Oncogenic RAS signaling affects mitochondrial metabolism through an unknown mechanism, leading to increased generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which triggers oxidative stress induced senescence pathway. In addition, increased rate of cell division that is one of the consequences of oncogenic signaling, leads to telomere shortening which acts as another senescence trigger
The transition from the G1 to S phase is controlled by the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes. As the Cyclin E:Cdk2 complexes are formed, the Cdk2 is phosphorylated by the Wee1 and Myt1 kinases. This phosphorylation keeps the Cdk2 inactive. In yeast this control is called the cell size checkpoint control. The dephosphorylation of the Cdk2 by Cdc25A activates the Cdk2, and is coordinated with the cells reaching the proper size, and with the DNA synthesis machinery being ready. The Cdk2 then phosphorylates G1/S specific proteins, including proteins required for DNA replication initiation. The beginning of S-phase is marked by the first nucleotide being laid down on the primer during DNA replication at the early-firing origins.Failure to appropriately regulate cyclin E accumulation can lead to accelerated S phase entry, genetic instability, and tumorigenesis. The amount of\n cyclin E protein in the cell is controlled by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis (see Woo, 2003).This pathway has not yet been annotated in Reactome
Three D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase. These D cyclins bind to and activate both CDK4 and CDK6. The formation of all possible complexes between the D-type cyclins and CDK4/6 is promoted by the proteins, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). The cyclin-dependent kinases are then activated due to phosphorylation by CAK. The cyclin dependent kinases phosphorylate the RB1 protein and RB1-related proteins p107 (RBL1) and p130 (RBL2). Phosphorylation of RB1 leads to release of activating E2F transcription factors (E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3). After repressor E2Fs (E2F4 and E2F5) dissociate from phosphorylated RBL1 and RBL2, activating E2Fs bind to E2F promoter sites, stimulating transcription of cell cycle genes, which then results in proper G1/S transition. The binding and sequestration of p27Kip may also contribute to the activation of CDK2 cyclin E/CDK2 cyclin A complexes at the G1/S transition (Yew et al., 2001)
Cyclin A:Cdk2 plays a key role in S phase entry by phosphorylation of proteins including Cdh1, Rb, p21 and p27. During G1 phase of the cell cycle, cyclin A is synthesized and associates with Cdk2. After forming in the cytoplasm, the Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes are translocated to the nucleus (Jackman et al.,2002). Prior to S phase entry, the activity of Cyclin A:Cdk2 complexes is negatively regulated through Tyr 15 phosphorylation of Cdk2 (Gu et al., 1995) and also by the association of the cyclin kinase inhibitors (CKIs), p27 and p21. Phosphorylation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDKs) by the CDK-activating kinase (CAK) is required for the activation of the CDK2 kinase activity (Aprelikova et al., 1995). The entry into S phase is promoted by the removal of inhibitory Tyr 15 phosphates from the Cdk2 subunit of Cyclin A:Cdk2 complex by the Cdc25 phosphatases (Blomberg and Hoffmann, 1999) and by SCF(Skp2)-mediated degradation of p27/p21 (see Ganoth et al., 2001). \r\nWhile Cdk2 is thought to play a primary role in regulating entry into S phase, recent evidence indicates that Cdk1 is equally capable of promoting entry into S phase and the initiation of DNA replication (see Bashir and Pagano, 2005). Thus, Cdk1 complexes may also play a significant role at this point in the cell cycle
The complex of RUNX2 and CBFB regulates transcription of genes involved in differentiation of osteoblasts.RUNX2 stimulates transcription of the BGLAP gene, encoding osteocalcin (Ducy and Karsenty 1995, Ducy et al. 1997). Binding of the RUNX2:CBFB complex to the BGLAP gene promoter is increased when RUNX2 is phosphorylated on serine residue S451 (Wee et al. 2002). Osteocalcin, a bone-derived hormone, is one of the most abundant non-collagenous proteins of the bone extracellular matrix (reviewed in Karsenty and Olson 2016). Association of the activated androgen receptor (AR) with RUNX2 prevents binding of RUNX2 to the BGLAP promoter (Baniwal et al. 2009). When YAP1, tyrosine phosphorylated by SRC and/or YES1, binds to RUNX2 at the BGLAP gene promoter, transcription of the BGLAP gene is inhibited (Zaidi et al. 2004). Signaling by SRC is known to inhibit osteoblast differentiation (Marzia et al. 2000).Simultaneous binding of RUNX2 and SP7 (Osterix, also known as OSX) to adjacent RUNX2 and SP7 binding sites, respectively, in the UCMA promoter, synergistically activates UCMA transcription. UCMA stimulates osteoblast differentiation and formation of mineralized nodules (Lee et al. 2015).The SCF(SKP2) E3 ubiquitin ligase complex inhibits differentiation of osteoblasts by polyubiquitinating RUNX2 and targeting it for proteasome-mediated degradation (Thacker et al. 2016). This process is inhibited by glucose uptake in osteoblasts (Wei et al. 2015)