241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Possible cell adhesion receptor It possesses anintrinsic protein tyrosine phosphatase activity (PTPase) anddephosphorylates EPHA2 regulating its activity The first PTPase domain has enzymatic activity, whilethe second one seems to affect the substrate specificity of thefirst one
Catalytic Activity (UniProt annotation)
Protein tyrosine phosphate + H(2)O = proteintyrosine + phosphate
Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. There are four main groups: the integrin family, the immunoglobulin superfamily, selectins, and cadherins. Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell–cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated brain functions such as memory and learning. During early development of the nervous system, neurons elongate their axons towards their targets and establish and maintain synapses through formation of cell-cell adhesions. Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes.
Cell-cell adherens junctions (AJs), the most common type of intercellular adhesions, are important for maintaining tissue architecture and cell polarity and can limit cell movement and proliferation. At AJs, E-cadherin serves as an essential cell adhesion molecules (CAMs). The cytoplasmic tail binds beta-catenin, which in turn binds alpha-catenin. Alpha-catenin is associated with F-actin bundles directly and indirectly. The integrity of the cadherin-catenin complex is negatively regulated by phosphorylation of beta-catenin by receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) and cytoplasmic tyrosine kinases (Fer, Fyn, Yes, and Src), which leads to dissociation of the cadherin-catenin complex. Integrity of this complex is positively regulated by beta -catenin phosphorylation by casein kinase II, and dephosphorylation by protein tyrosine phosphatases. Changes in the phosphorylation state of beta-catenin affect cell-cell adhesion, cell migration and the level of signaling beta-catenin. Wnt signaling acts as a positive regulator of beta-catenin by inhibiting beta-catenin degradation, which stabilizes beta-catenin, and causes its accumulation. Cadherin may acts as a negative regulator of signaling beta-catenin as it binds beta-catenin at the cell surface and thereby sequesters it from the nucleus. Nectins also function as CAMs at AJs, but are more highly concentrated at AJs than E-cadherin. Nectins transduce signals through Cdc42 and Rac, which reorganize the actin cytoskeleton, regulate the formation of AJs, and strengthen cell-cell adhesion.
Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which activates Akt, a serine kinase. Akt in turn deactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), leading to activation of glycogen synthase (GYS) and thus glycogen synthesis. Activation of Akt also results in the translocation of GLUT4 vesicles from their intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, where they allow uptake of glucose into the cell. Akt also leads to mTOR-mediated activation of protein synthesis by eIF4 and p70S6K. The translocation of GLUT4 protein is also elicited through the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway, once Cbl is phosphorylated by INSR.Other signal transduction proteins interact with IRS including GRB2. GRB2 is part of the cascade including SOS, RAS, RAF and MEK that leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mitogenic responses in the form of gene transcription. SHC is another substrate of INSR. When tyrosine phosphorylated, SHC associates with GRB2 and can thus activate the RAS/MAPK pathway independently of IRS-1.
Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms underlying insulin resistance are shown: (a) increased phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) protein through serine/threonine kinases, such as JNK1 and IKKB, and protein kinase C, (b) increased IRS-1 proteasome degradation via mTOR signaling pathway, (c) decreased activation of signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT, (d) increase in activity of phosphatases including PTPs, PTEN, and PP2A. Regulatory actions such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of intracellular lipid derivatives (diacylglycrol and ceramides), and inflammation (via IL-6 and TNFA) contribute to these mechanisms. Consequently, insulin resistance causes reduced GLUT4 translocation, resulting in glucose takeup and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle as well as increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen synthesis in liver. At the bottom of the diagram, interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation is shown. Studies suggested that elevated O-GlcNAc level was correlated to high glucose-induced insulin resistance. Donor UDP-GlcNAc is induced through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase. Elevation of O-GlcNAc modification alters phosphorylation and function of key insulin signaling proteins including IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, Akt and other transcription factor and cofactors, resulting in the attenuation of insulin signaling cascade.
Like neurexins, Receptor-like protein tyrosine phosphatases (RPTPs) make trans-synaptic adhesion complexes with multiple postsynaptic binding partners to regulate synapse organization. The type IIa RPTPs include three members, Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase F (PTPRF) sometimes referred to as leukocyte common antigen-related (LAR), Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase sigma (PTPRS) and Receptor-type tyrosine-protein phosphatase delta (PTPRD). These proteins contain typical cell adhesion immunoglobulin-like (Ig) and fibronectin III (FNIII) domains, suggesting the involvement of RPTPs in cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. To date, six different types of postsynaptic organizers for type-IIa RPTPs have been reported: interleukin-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP, IL-1RAcP) (Yoshida et al. 2012), IL-1RAcP-like-1 (IL1RAPL1) (Yoshida et al. 2011), Neurotrophin receptor tyrosine kinase 3 (NTRK3, TrkC) (Takahashi et al. 2011), Leucine-rich repeat-containing protein 4B (LRRC4B, Netrin-G ligand-3, NGL-3) (Woo et al. 2009, Kwon et al. 2010), the Slit- and Trk-like (Slitrk) family proteins (Takahashi et al. 2012, Yim et al. 2013, Yamagata et al. 2015) and the liprins (Serra-Pagès et al. 1998, Dunah et al. 2005)
Recruitment of receptors and ion channels to the postsynaptic membrane is the last step in synapse formation. Many of these proteins interact directly or indirectly with postsynaptic density-95 (PSD95)/Discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) proteins, thus linking them to the postsynaptic scaffold and providing a mechanism for both retaining the protein at the synapse and keeping its proximity to signaling molecules known to associate with PDZ proteins (Wang et al. 2006, Morimura et al. 2006, Ko et al. 2006, Nourry et al. 2003, Kim & Sheng 2004, Montgomery et al. 2004, Sheng and Kim 2011). The synaptic adhesion-like molecules (SALM) family belongs to the superfamily of leucine-rich repeat (LRR)-containing adhesion molecules, alternatively referred to as LRFN (leucine-rich repeat and fibronectin III domain-containing) is synapse adhesion molecule linked to NMDA and AMPA receptors. It includes five known members (SALMs 1-5 or LRFN1-5), which have been implicated in the regulation of neurite outgrowth and branching, and synapse formation and maturation. SALM proteins are distributed to both dendrites and axons in neurons (Ko et al. 2006, Wang et al. 2006, Sebold et al. 2012). The family members, SALM1-SALM5, have a single transmembrane (TM) domain and contain extracellular leucine-rich repeats, an Ig C2 type domain, a fibronectin type III domain, and an intracellular postsynaptic density-95 (PSD-95)/Discs large/zona occludens-1 (PDZ) binding domain, which is present on all members except SALM4 and SALM5 (Ko et al. 2006, Wang et al.2006, Morimura et al. 2006)