241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Multifunctional glycoprotein that acts as receptor for abroad range of ligands Ligands can be of proteinaceous naturelike thrombospondin, fibronectin, collagen or amyloid-beta as wellas of lipidic nature such as oxidized low-density lipoprotein(oxLDL), anionic phospholipids, long-chain fatty acids andbacterial diacylated lipopeptides They are generally multivalentand can therefore engage multiple receptors simultaneously, theresulting formation of CD36 clusters initiates signal transductionand internalization of receptor-ligand complexes The dependencyon coreceptor signaling is strongly ligand specific Cellularresponses to these ligands are involved in angiogenesis,inflammatory response, fatty acid metabolism, taste and dietaryfat processing in the intestine (Probable) Binds long-chain fattyacids and facilitates their transport into cells, thusparticipating in muscle lipid utilization, adipose energy storage,and gut fat absorption (By similarity) (PubMed:18353783,PubMed:21610069) In the small intestine, plays a role in proximalabsorption of dietary fatty acid and cholesterol for optimalchylomicron formation, possibly through the activation of MAPK1/3(ERK1/2) signaling pathway (By similarity) (PubMed:18753675)Involved in oral fat perception and preferences (PubMed:22240721,PubMed:25822988) Detection into the tongue of long-chain fattyacids leads to a rapid and sustained rise in flux and proteincontent of pancreatobiliary secretions (By similarity) In tastereceptor cells, mediates the induction of an increase inintracellular calcium levels by long-chain fatty acids, leading tothe activation of the gustatory neurons in the nucleus of thesolitary tract (By similarity) Important factor in bothventromedial hypothalamus neuronal sensing of long-chain fattyacid and the regulation of energy and glucose homeostasis (Bysimilarity) Receptor for thombospondins, THBS1 and THBS2,mediating their antiangiogenic effects (By similarity) As acoreceptor for TLR4:TLR6 heterodimer, promotes inflammation inmonocytes/macrophages Upon ligand binding, such as oxLDL oramyloid-beta 42, interacts with the heterodimer TLR4:TLR6, thecomplex is internalized and triggers inflammatory response,leading to NF-kappa-B-dependent production of CXCL1, CXCL2 andCCL9 cytokines, via MYD88 signaling pathway, and CCL5 cytokine,via TICAM1 signaling pathway, as well as IL1B secretion, throughthe priming and activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome (Bysimilarity) (PubMed:20037584) Selective and nonredundant sensorof microbial diacylated lipopeptide that signal via TLR2:TLR6heterodimer, this cluster triggers signaling from the cellsurface, leading to the NF-kappa-B-dependent production of TNF,via MYD88 signaling pathway and subsequently is targeted to theGolgi in a lipid-raft dependent pathway (By similarity)(PubMed:16880211) (Microbial infection) Directly mediates cytoadherence ofPlasmodium falciparum parasitized erythrocytes and theinternalization of particles independently of TLR signaling
Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by fatty acids and their derivatives. PPAR has three subtypes (PPARalpha, beta/delta, and gamma) showing different expression patterns in vertebrates. Each of them is encoded in a separate gene and binds fatty acids and eicosanoids. PPARalpha plays a role in the clearance of circulating or cellular lipids via the regulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism in liver and skeletal muscle. PPARbeta/delta is involved in lipid oxidation and cell proliferation. PPARgamma promotes adipocyte differentiation to enhance blood glucose uptake.
Phagocytosis is the process of taking in relatively large particles by a cell, and is a central mechanism in the tissue remodeling, inflammation, and defense against infectious agents. A phagosome is formed when the specific receptors on the phagocyte surface recognize ligands on the particle surface. After formation, nascent phagosomes progressively acquire digestive characteristics. This maturation of phagosomes involves regulated interaction with the other membrane organelles, including recycling endosomes, late endosomes and lysosomes. The fusion of phagosomes and lysosomes releases toxic products that kill most bacteria and degrade them into fragments. However, some bacteria have strategies to escape the bactericidal mechanisms associated with phagocytosis and survive within host phagocytes.
AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine threonine kinase that is highly conserved through evolution. AMPK system acts as a sensor of cellular energy status. It is activated by increases in the cellular AMP:ATP ratio caused by metabolic stresses that either interfere with ATP production (eg, deprivation for glucose or oxygen) or that accelerate ATP consumption (eg, muscle contraction). Several upstream kinases, including liver kinase B1 (LKB1), calcium/calmodulin kinase kinase-beta (CaMKK beta), and TGF-beta-activated kinase-1 (TAK-1), can activate AMPK by phosphorylating a threonine residue on its catalytic alpha-subunit. Once activated, AMPK leads to a concomitant inhibition of energy-consuming biosynthetic pathways, such as protein, fatty acid and glycogen synthesis, and activation of ATP-producing catabolic pathways, such as fatty acid oxidation and glycolysis.
The extracellular matrix (ECM) consists of a complex mixture of structural and functional macromolecules and serves an important role in tissue and organ morphogenesis and in the maintenance of cell and tissue structure and function. Specific interactions between cells and the ECM are mediated by transmembrane molecules, mainly integrins and perhaps also proteoglycans, CD36, or other cell-surface-associated components. These interactions lead to a direct or indirect control of cellular activities such as adhesion, migration, differentiation, proliferation, and apoptosis. In addition, integrins function as mechanoreceptors and provide a force-transmitting physical link between the ECM and the cytoskeleton. Integrins are a family of glycosylated, heterodimeric transmembrane adhesion receptors that consist of noncovalently bound alpha- and beta-subunits.
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes.
Increased adipocyte volume and number are positively correlated with leptin production, and negatively correlated with production of adiponectin.Leptin is an important regulator of energy intake and metabolic rate primarily by acting at hypothalamic nuclei. Leptin exerts its anorectic effects by modulating the levels of neuropeptides such as NPY, AGRP, and alpha-MSH. This leptin action is through the JAK kinase, STAT3 phosphorylation, and nuclear transcriptional effect.Adiponectin lowers plasma glucose and FFAs. These effects are partly accounted for by adiponectin-induced AMPK activation, which in turn stimulates skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation and glucose uptake. Furthermore, activation of AMPK by adiponectin suppresses endogenous glucose production, concomitantly with inhibition of PEPCK and G6Pase expression.The proinflammatory cytokine TNFalpha has been implicated as a link between obesity and insulin resistance. TNFalpha interferes with early steps of insulin signaling. Several data have shown that TNFalpha inhibits IRS1 tyrosine phosphorylation by promoting its serine phosphorylation. Among the serine/threonine kinases activated by TNFalpha, JNK, mTOR and IKK have been shown to be involved in this phosphorylation.
Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms underlying insulin resistance are shown: (a) increased phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) protein through serine/threonine kinases, such as JNK1 and IKKB, and protein kinase C, (b) increased IRS-1 proteasome degradation via mTOR signaling pathway, (c) decreased activation of signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT, (d) increase in activity of phosphatases including PTPs, PTEN, and PP2A. Regulatory actions such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of intracellular lipid derivatives (diacylglycrol and ceramides), and inflammation (via IL-6 and TNFA) contribute to these mechanisms. Consequently, insulin resistance causes reduced GLUT4 translocation, resulting in glucose takeup and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle as well as increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen synthesis in liver. At the bottom of the diagram, interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation is shown. Studies suggested that elevated O-GlcNAc level was correlated to high glucose-induced insulin resistance. Donor UDP-GlcNAc is induced through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase. Elevation of O-GlcNAc modification alters phosphorylation and function of key insulin signaling proteins including IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, Akt and other transcription factor and cofactors, resulting in the attenuation of insulin signaling cascade.
Fat is an important energy source from food. More than 95% of dietary fat is long-chain triacylglycerols (TAG), the remaining being phospholipids (4.5%) and sterols. In the small intestine lumen, dietary TAG is hydrolyzed to fatty acids (FA) and monoacylglycerols (MAG) by pancreatic lipase. These products are then emulsified with the help of phospholipids (PL) and bile acids (BA) present in bile to form micelles. Free FAs and MAGs are taken up by the enterocyte where they are rapidly resynthesized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to form TAG. PLs from the diet as well as bile - mainly LPA - too are absorbed by the enterocyte and are acylated to form phosphatidic acid (PA), which is also converted into TAG. Absorbed cholesterol (CL) is acylated to cholesterol esters (CE). Within the ER, TAG joins CE and apolipoprotein B (ApoB) to form chylomicrons that enter circulation through the lymph.
Cholesterol is an essential component of mammalian cell membranes as well as a precursor of bile acids, vitamin D and steroid hormones. Cholesterol homeostasis in humans is regulated by well-balanced mechanisms of intestinal uptake, endogenous synthesis, transport in lipoprotein particles, and biliary excretion. Its abnormal metabolism can lead to increased risk for various endocrine disorders and cardiovascular diseases.
Plasmodium protozoa are parasites that account for malaria infection. Sporozoite forms of the parasite are injected by mosquito bites under the skin and are carried to the liver where they develop into the merozoite form.Sporozoite invasion of hepatocytes is mediated by parasite surface protein like CSP. Subsequent infection into red blood cells (RBCs) by merozoites causes malaria disease via aberrant cytokine production and sequestration of parasite-infected red blood cells (pRBCs) to host endothelium. Microvasculature sequestration in the brain brings about cerebral malaria that can results in death or persisting neurological impairment. PfEMP1 has been suggested as the key adhesive molecule of pRBCs.
Platelets function as exocytotic cells, secreting a plethora of effector molecules at sites of vascular injury. Platelets contain a number of distinguishable storage granules including alpha granules, dense granules and lysosomes. On activation platelets release a variety of proteins, largely from storage granules but also as the result of apparent cell lysis. These act in an autocrine or paracrine fashion to modulate cell signaling. Alpha granules contain mainly polypeptides such as fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor, growth factors and protease inhibitors that that supplement thrombin generation at the site of injury. Dense granules contain small molecules, particularly adenosine diphosphate (ADP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), serotonin and calcium, all recruit platelets to the site of injury. \n\nThe molecular mechanism which facilitates granule release involves soluble NSF attachment protein receptors (SNAREs), which assemble into complexes to form a universal membrane fusion apparatus. Although all cells use SNAREs for membrane fusion, different cells possess different SNARE isoforms. Platelets and chromaffin cells use many of the same chaperone proteins to regulate SNARE-mediated secretion (Fitch-Tewfik & Flaumenhaft 2013)
Dendritic cells (DCs) take up and process exogenous particulate or cell-associated antigens such as microbes or tumor cells for MHC-I cross-presentation. Particulate antigens have been reported to be more efficiently cross-presented than soluble antigens by DCs (Khor et al. 2008). Particulate antigens are internalized by phagosomes. There are two established models that explain the mechanism by which exogenous particulate antigens are presented through MHC I; the cytosolic pathway where internalized antigens are somehow translocated from phagosomes into cytosol for proteasomal degradation and the vacuolar pathway (Lin et al. 2008, Amigorena et al. 2010)
The other TAP-dependent cross-presentation mechanism in phagocytes is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-phagosome model. Desjardins proposed that ER is recruited to the cell surface, where it fuses with the plasma membrane, underneath phagocytic cups, to supply membrane for the formation of nascent phagosomes (Gagnon et al. 2002). Three independent studies simultaneously showed that ER contributes to the vast majority of phagosome membrane (Guermonprez et al. 2003, Houde et al. 2003, Ackerman et al. 2003). The composition of early phagosome membrane contains ER-resident proteins, the components required for cross-presentation. This model is similar to the phagosome-to-cytosol model in that Ag is translocated to cytosol for proteasomal degradation, but differs in that antigenic peptides are translocated back into the phagosome (instead of ER) for peptide:MHC-I complexes. ER fusion with phagosome introduces molecules that are involved in Ag transport to cytosol (Sec61) and proteasome-generated peptides back into the phagosome (TAP) for loading onto MHC-I. Although the ER-phagosome pathway is controversial, the concept remains attractive as it explains how peptide-receptive MHC-I molecules could intersect with a relatively high concentration of exogenous antigens, presumably a crucial prerequisite for efficient cross-presentation (Basha et al. 2008)
The first known downstream component of TLR4 and TLR2 signaling is the adaptor MyD88. Another adapter MyD88-adaptor-like (Mal; also known as TIR-domain-containing adaptor protein or TIRAP) has also been described for TLR4 and TLR2 signaling. MyD88 comprises an N-terminal Death Domain (DD) and a C-terminal TIR, whereas Mal lacks the DD. The TIR homotypic interactions bring adapters into contact with the activated TLRs, whereas the DD modules recruit serine/threonine kinases such as interleukin-1-receptor-associated kinase (IRAK). Recruitment of these protein kinases is accompanied by phosphorylation, which in turn results in the interaction of IRAKs with TNF-receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF6). The oligomerization of TRAF6 activates TAK1, a member of the MAP3-kinase family, and this leads to the activation of the IkB kinases. These kinases, in turn, phosphorylate IkB, leading to its proteolytic degradation and the translocation of NF-kB to the nucleus. Concomitantly, members of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor family, Jun and Fos, are activated, and both AP-1 transcription factors and NF-kB are required for cytokine production, which in turn produces downstream inflammatory effects
TLR2 and TLR4 recognize different bacterial cell wall components. While TLR4 is trained onto Gram-negative lipopolysaccharide components, TLR2 - in combination with TLR6 - plays a major role in recognizing peptidoglycan wall products from Gram-positive bacteria, as well as Mycobacterial diacylated lipopeptides. In particular, TLR6 appears to participate in discriminating the subtle differences between dipalmitoyl and tripalmitoyl cysteinyl residues (Okusawa et al. 2004)
The set of genes regulated by PPAR-alpha is not fully known in humans, however many examples have been found in mice. Genes directly activated by PPAR-alpha contain peroxisome proliferator receptor elements (PPREs) in their promoters and include: 1) genes involved in fatty acid oxidation and ketogenesis (Acox1, Cyp4a, Acadm, Hmgcs2);2) genes involved in fatty acid transport (Cd36, , Slc27a1, Fabp1, Cpt1a, Cpt2);3) genes involved in producing fatty acids and very low density lipoproteins (Me1, Scd1);4) genes encoding apolipoproteins (Apoa1, Apoa2, Apoa5);5) genes involved in triglyceride clearance ( Angptl4);6) genes involved in glycerol metabolism (Gpd1 in mouse);7) genes involved in glucose metabolism (Pdk4);8) genes involved in peroxisome proliferation (Pex11a);9) genes involved in lipid storage (Plin, Adfp).Many other genes are known to be regulated by PPAR-alpha but whether their regulation is direct or indirect remains to be found. These genes include: ACACA, FAS, SREBP1, FADS1, DGAT1, ABCA1, PLTP, ABCB4, UGT2B4, SULT2A1, Pnpla2, Acsl1, Slc27a4, many Acot genes, and others (reviewed in Rakhshandehroo et al. 2010)
Adipogenesis is the process of cell differentiation by which preadipocytes become adipocytes. During this process the preadipocytes cease to proliferate, begin to accumulate lipid droplets and develop morphologic and biochemical characteristics of mature adipocytes such as hormone responsive lipogenenic and lipolytic programs. The most intensively studied model system for adipogenesis is differentiation of the mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocyte cell line by an induction cocktail of containing mitogens (insulin/IGF1), glucocorticoid (dexamethasone), an inducer of cAMP (IBMX), and fetal serum (Cao et al. 1991, reviewed in Farmer 2006). More recently additional cellular models have become available to study adipogenesis that involve almost all stages of development (reviewed in Rosen and MacDougald 2006). In vivo knockout mice lacking putative adipogenic factors have also been extensively studied. Human pathways are traditionally inferred from those discovered in mouse but are now beginning to be validated in cellular models derived from human adipose progenitors (Fischer-Posovszky et al. 2008, Wdziekonski et al. 2011).Adipogenesis is controlled by a cascade of transcription factors (Yeh et al. 1995, reviewed in Farmer 2006, Gesta et al. 2007). One of the first observable events during adipocyte differentiation is a transient increase in expression of the CEBPB (CCAAT/Enhancer Binding Protein Beta, C/EBPB) and CEBPD (C/EBPD) transcription factors (Cao et al. 1991, reviewed in Lane et al. 1999). This occurs prior to the accumulation of lipid droplets. However, it is the subsequent inductions of CEBPA and PPARG that are critical for morphological, biochemical and functional adipocytes.Ectopic expression of CEBPB alone is capable of inducing substantial adipocyte differentiation in fibroblasts while CEBPD has a minimal effect. CEBPB is upregulated in response to intracellular cAMP (possibly via pCREB) and serum mitogens (possibly via Krox20). CEBPD is upregulated in response to glucocorticoids. The exact mechanisms that upregulate the CEBPs are not fully known.CEBPB and CEBPD act directly on the Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor Gamma (PPARG) gene by binding its promoter and activating transcription. CEBPB and CEBPD also directly activate the EBF1 gene (and possibly other EBFs) and KLF5 (Jimenez et al. 2007, Oishi 2005). The EBF1 and KLF5 proteins, in turn bind, and activate the PPARG promoter. Other hormones, such as insulin, affect PPARG expression and other transcription factors, such as ADD1/SREBP1c, bind the PPARG promoter. This is an area of ongoing research.During adipogenesis the PPARG gene is transcribed to yield 2 variants. The adipogenic variant 2 mRNA encodes 30 additional amino acids at the N-terminus compared to the widely expressed variant 1 mRNA.PPARG encodes a type II nuclear hormone receptor (remains in the nucleus in the absence of ligand) that forms a heterodimer with the Retinoid X Receptor Alpha (RXRA). The heterodimer was initially identified as a complex regulating the aP2/FABP4 gene and named ARF6 (Tontonoz et al. 1994).The PPARG:RXRA heterodimer binds a recognition sequence that consists of two hexanucleotide motifs (DR1 motifs) separated by 1 nucleotide. Binding occurs even in the absence of ligands, such as fatty acids, that activate PPARG. In the absence of activating ligands, the PPARG:RXRA complex recruits repressors of transcription such as SMRT/NCoR2, NCoR1, and HDAC3 (Tontonoz and Spiegelman 2008).Each molecule of PPARG can bind 2 molecules of activating ligands. Although, the identity of the endogenous ligands of PPARG is unknown, exogenous activators include fatty acids and the thiazolidinedione class of antidiabetic drugs (reviewed in Berger et al. 2005, Heikkinen et al. 2007, Lemberger et al. 1996). The most potent activators of PPARG in vitro are oxidized derivatives of unsaturated fatty acids.. Upon binding activating ligands PPARG causes a rearrangement of adjacent factors: Corepressors such as SMRT/NCoR2 are lost and coactivators such as TIF2, PRIP, CBP, and p300 are recruited (Tontonoz and Spiegelman). PPARG also binds directly to the TRAP220 subunit of the TRAP/Mediator complex that recruits RNA polymerase II. Thus binding of activating ligand by PPARG causes transcription of PPARG target genes.Targets of PPARG include genes involved in differentiation (PGAR/HFARP, Perilipin, aP2/FABP4, CEBPA), fatty acid transport (LPL, FAT/CD36), carbohydrate metabolism (PEPCK-C, AQP7, GK, GLUT4 (SLC2A4)), and energy homeostasis (LEPTIN and ADIPONECTIN) (Perera et al. 2006).Within 10 days of differentiation CEBPB and CEBPD are no longer located at the PPARG promoter. Instead CEBPA is present. EBF1 and PPARG bind the CEBPA promoter and activate transcription of CEBPA, one of the key transcription factors in adipogenesis. A current hypothesis posits a self-reinforcing loop that maintains PPARG expression and the differentiated state: PPARG activates CEBPA and CEBPA activates PPARG. Additionally EBF1 (and possibly other EBFs) activates CEBPA, CEBPA activates EBF1, and EBF1 activates PPARG
Myeloid differentiation primary response (MyD88) is an adaptor protein that mediates intracellular signaling pathways evoked by all Toll-like receptors (TLRs) except for TLR3 and by several interleukin-1 receptors (IL-1Rs) (Medzhitov R et al. 1998). Upon ligand binding, TLRs hetero- or homodimerize and recruit MyD88 through their respective TIR domains. Then, MyD88 oligomerizes via its death domain (DD) and TIR domain and interacts with the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinases (IRAKs) to form the Myddosome complex (MyD88:IRAK4:IRAK1/2) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). The Myddosome complex transmits the signal leading to activation of transcription factors such as nuclear factor-kappaB (NFkB) and activator protein 1 (AP1).
Studies have identified patients with autosomal recessive (AR) form of MyD88 deficiency caused by homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in MYD88 gene leading to abolished protein production (von Bernuth et al. 2008). AR MyD88 deficiency is a type of a primary immunodeficiency characterized by greater susceptibility to pyogenic bacteria (such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus or Pseudomonas aeruginosa) manifested in infancy and early childhood. Patients with MyD88 deficiency show delayed or weak signs of inflammation (Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011).
Functional assessment of MyD88 deficiency revealed that cytokine responses were impaired in patient-derived blood cells upon stimulation with the agonists of TLR2 and TLR4 (PAM2CSK4 and LPS respectively), although some were produced in response to LPS. (von Bernuth et al. 2008). NFkB luciferase reporter gene assays using human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293T) cells showed that MyD88 variants, S34Y, E52del, E53X, L93P, R98C, and R196C, were compromised in their ability to enhance NFkB activation (Yamamoto T et al. 2014). The molecular basis for the observed functional effects (reported for selected mutations) probably faulty Myddosome formation due to impaired MyD88 oligomerization and/or interaction with IRAK4 (George J et al. 2011; Nagpal K et al. 2011; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).
While MyD88-deficiency might be expected to perturb MyD88?IRAK4 dependent TLR7 and TLR8 signaling events associated with the sensing viral infections, patients with MyD88 and IRAK4 deficiencies have so far not been reported to be susceptible to viral infection
Interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase 4 (IRAK4) is a serine/threonine kinase, that mediates activation of transcriptional factors such as NFkB and AP1 downstream of IL-1 receptors and all toll like receptors (TLR) except for TLR3 (Suzuki N et al. 2002). IRAK4 is recruited to the TLR receptor complex through a homophilic interaction of the death domains of IRAK4 and adaptor myeloid differentiation factor 88 protein (MyD88) (Motshwene PG et al. 2009; Lin SC et al. 2010). Studies have identified patients with an autosomal recessive (AR) form of IRAK4 deficiency, a health condition with clinical manifestation in infancy or early childhood, that predisposes affected patients to recurrent pyogenic bacterial infection (e.g., Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus) (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; Picard C et al. 2010; Picard C et al. 2011). Leukocytes derived from IRAK4-deficient patients display a lack of production of inflammatory cytokines such as TNF alpha, IL-6 and IL-1 beta by whole blood or a lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes following activation with the most TLR agonists including those of TLR1/2 (Pam3CSK4), TLR2/6 (Pam2CSK4) and TLR4 (LPS) (Picard C et al. 2003; McDonald DR et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). However, LPS-induced TLR4-mediated production of some cytokines (IL8 and MIP-1beta) was reduced but not abolished (Ku CL et al. 2007). LPS-stimulated induction of type I IFN via MyD88-IRAK4 independent signaling axis was normal or weakly affected suggesting that TLR4 could induce some responses in IRAK4 deficient patients(Yang K et al. 2005).
Patients with AR IRAK4 deficiency were found to bear homozygous or compound heterozygous mutations in the IRAK4 gene (Picard C et al. 2003; Ku CL et al. 2007; McDonald DR et al. 2006). Here we describe selected mutations, that have been functionally characterized. Cell-based assay as well as in vitro protein-interaction analyses with IRAK4 variants showed that the loss-of-function of defective IRAK4 is caused by either loss of protein production (reported for IRAK4 Q293X and E402X) or an impaired interaction with MyD88 as shown for missence mutation IRAK4 R12C (Ku CL et al. 2007; Yamamoto T et al. 2014).
Besides defective TLR2/4 mediated signaling, the Reactome module describes the impact of functional deficiency of IRAK4 on TLR5 pathways. The module does not include defective TLR7, TLR8 and TLR9 signaling events, which are associated mostly with viral infections, although studies using patient-derived blood cells showed abolished cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and lack of CD62 ligand (CD62L) shedding from granulocytes in response to TLR7-9 agonists (McDonald DR et al. 2006; von Bernuth H et al. 2006; Ku CL et al. 2007). In addition to the TLR-NFkB signaling axis, endosomic TLR7-9 activates IFN-alpha/beta and IFN-gamma responses and these are also impaired in IRAK4-deficient PBMC (Yang K et al. 2005). Nevertheless, IFN-alpha/beta and -gamma production in IRAK-4-deficient blood cells in response to 9 of 11 viruses was normal or weakly affected, suggesting that IRAK-4-deficient patients may control viral infections by TLR7-9-independent production of IFNs such as IRAK4-independent antiviral RIGI and MDA5 pathways (Yang K et al. 2005). So it is not yet possible to annotate a definitive molecular pathway between IRAK-4 deficiency and changes in TLR7-9 signaling
Diverse molecules of host-cell origin may serve as endogenous ligands of Toll-like receptors (TLRs) (Erridge C 2010; Piccinini AM & Midwood KS 2010). These molecules are known as damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs). DAMPs are immunologically silent in healthy tissues but become active upon tissue damage during both infectious and sterile insult. DAMPs are released from necrotic cells or secreted from activated cells in response to tissue damage to mediate tissue repair by promoting inflammatory responses. However, DAMPs have also been implicated in the pathogenesis of many inflammatory and autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA), cancer, and atherosclerosis. The mechanism underlying the switch from DAMPs that initiate controlled tissue repair, to those that mediate chronic, uncontrolled inflammation is still unclear. Recent evidence suggests that an abnormal increase in protein citrullination is involved in disease pathophysiology (Anzilotti C et al. 2010; Sanchez-Pernaute O et al. 2013; Sokolove J et al. 2011; Sharma P et al. 2012). Citrullination is a post-translational modification event mediated by peptidyl-arginine deaminase enzymes which catalyze the deimination of proteins by converting arginine residues into citrullines in the presence of calcium ions
Interleukin-4 (IL4) is a principal regulatory cytokine during the immune response, crucially important in allergy and asthma (Nelms et al. 1999). When resting T cells are antigen-activated and expand in response to Interleukin-2 (IL2), they can differentiate as Type 1 (Th1) or Type 2 (Th2) T helper cells. The outcome is influenced by IL4. Th2 cells secrete IL4, which both stimulates Th2 in an autocrine fashion and acts as a potent B cell growth factor to promote humoral immunity (Nelms et al. 1999). Interleukin-13 (IL13) is an immunoregulatory cytokine secreted predominantly by activated Th2 cells. It is a key mediator in the pathogenesis of allergic inflammation. IL13 shares many functional properties with IL4, stemming from the fact that they share a common receptor subunit. IL13 receptors are expressed on human B cells, basophils, eosinophils, mast cells, endothelial cells, fibroblasts, monocytes, macrophages, respiratory epithelial cells, and smooth muscle cells, but unlike IL4, not T cells. Thus IL13 does not appear to be important in the initial differentiation of CD4 T cells into Th2 cells, rather it is important in the effector phase of allergic inflammation (Hershey et al. 2003).\n\nIL4 and IL13 induce “alternative activation” of macrophages, inducing an anti-inflammatory phenotype by signaling through IL4R alpha in a STAT6 dependent manner. This signaling plays an important role in the Th2 response, mediating anti-parasitic effects and aiding wound healing (Gordon & Martinez 2010, Loke et al. 2002)\n\nThere are two types of IL4 receptor complex (Andrews et al. 2006). Type I IL4R (IL4R1) is predominantly expressed on the surface of hematopoietic cells and consists of IL4R and IL2RG, the common gamma chain. Type II IL4R (IL4R2) is predominantly expressed on the surface of nonhematopoietic cells, it consists of IL4R and IL13RA1 and is also the type II receptor for IL13. (Obiri et al. 1995, Aman et al. 1996, Hilton et al. 1996, Miloux et al. 1997, Zhang et al. 1997). The second receptor for IL13 consists of IL4R and Interleukin-13 receptor alpha 2 (IL13RA2), sometimes called Interleukin-13 binding protein (IL13BP). It has a high affinity receptor for IL13 (Kd = 250 pmol/L) but is not sufficient to render cells responsive to IL13, even in the presence of IL4R (Donaldson et al. 1998). It is reported to exist in soluble form (Zhang et al. 1997) and when overexpressed reduces JAK-STAT signaling (Kawakami et al. 2001). It's function may be to prevent IL13 signalling via the functional IL4R:IL13RA1 receptor. IL13RA2 is overexpressed and enhances cell invasion in some human cancers (Joshi & Puri 2012).The first step in the formation of IL4R1 (IL4:IL4R:IL2RB) is the binding of IL4 with IL4R (Hoffman et al. 1995, Shen et al. 1996, Hage et al. 1999). This is also the first step in formation of IL4R2 (IL4:IL4R:IL13RA1). After the initial binding of IL4 and IL4R, IL2RB binds (LaPorte et al. 2008), to form IL4R1. Alternatively, IL13RA1 binds, forming IL4R2. In contrast, the type II IL13 complex (IL13R2) forms with IL13 first binding to IL13RA1 followed by recruitment of IL4R (Wang et al. 2009).Crystal structures of the IL4:IL4R:IL2RG, IL4:IL4R:IL13RA1 and IL13:IL4R:IL13RA1 complexes have been determined (LaPorte et al. 2008). Consistent with these structures, in monocytes IL4R is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to both IL4 and IL13 (Roy et al. 2002, Gordon & Martinez 2010) while IL13RA1 phosphorylation is induced only by IL13 (Roy et al. 2002, LaPorte et al. 2008) and IL2RG phosphorylation is induced only by IL4 (Roy et al. 2002).Both IL4 receptor complexes signal through Jak/STAT cascades. IL4R is constitutively-associated with JAK2 (Roy et al. 2002) and associates with JAK1 following binding of IL4 (Yin et al. 1994) or IL13 (Roy et al. 2002). IL2RG constitutively associates with JAK3 (Boussiotis et al. 1994, Russell et al. 1994). IL13RA1 constitutively associates with TYK2 (Umeshita-Suyama et al. 2000, Roy et al. 2002, LaPorte et al. 2008, Bhattacharjee et al. 2013). IL4 binding to IL4R1 leads to phosphorylation of JAK1 (but not JAK2) and STAT6 activation (Takeda et al. 1994, Ratthe et al. 2007, Bhattacharjee et al. 2013). IL13 binding increases activating tyrosine-99 phosphorylation of IL13RA1 but not that of IL2RG. IL4 binding to IL2RG leads to its tyrosine phosphorylation (Roy et al. 2002). IL13 binding to IL4R2 leads to TYK2 and JAK2 (but not JAK1) phosphorylation (Roy & Cathcart 1998, Roy et al. 2002).Phosphorylated TYK2 binds and phosphorylates STAT6 and possibly STAT1 (Bhattacharjee et al. 2013). A second mechanism of signal transduction activated by IL4 and IL13 leads to the insulin receptor substrate (IRS) family (Kelly-Welch et al. 2003). IL4R1 associates with insulin receptor substrate 2 and activates the PI3K/Akt and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways involved in cell proliferation, survival and translational control. IL4R2 does not associate with insulin receptor substrate 2 and consequently the PI3K/Akt and Ras/MEK/Erk pathways are not activated (Busch-Dienstfertig & González-Rodríguez 2013)
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and migrate towards the inflammatory focus. They contain several subsets of granules that are mobilized to fuse with the cell membrane or phagosomal membrane, resulting in the exocytosis or exposure of membrane proteins. Traditionally, neutrophil granule constituents are described as antimicrobial or proteolytic, but granules also introduce membrane proteins to the cell surface, changing how the neutrophil responds to its environment (Borregaard et al. 2007). Primed neutrophils actively secrete cytokines and other inflammatory mediators and can present antigens via MHC II, stimulating T-cells (Wright et al. 2010).Granules form during neutrophil differentiation. Granule subtypes can be distinguished by their content but overlap in structure and composition. The differences are believed to be a consequence of changing protein expression and differential timing of granule formation during the terminal processes of neutrophil differentiation, rather than sorting (Le Cabec et al. 1996). The classical granule subsets are Azurophil or primary granules (AG), secondary granules (SG) and gelatinase granules (GG). Neutrophils also contain exocytosable storage cell organelles, storage vesicles (SV), formed by endocytosis they contain many cell-surface markers and extracellular, plasma proteins (Borregaard et al. 1992). Ficolin-1-rich granules (FG) are like GGs highly exocytosable but gelatinase-poor (Rorvig et al. 2009)