241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Cytoplasm Nucleus Membrane Cell membrane Note=MACF1 is required for itstranslocation to cell membrane (By similarity) On UV irradiation,translocates to the nucleus and colocalizes with DAAX(PubMed:17210684)
Function (UniProt annotation)
Component of the beta-catenin destruction complexrequired for regulating CTNNB1 levels through phosphorylation andubiquitination, and modulating Wnt-signaling (PubMed:12192039,PubMed:27098453) Controls dorsoventral patterning via twoopposing effects; down-regulates CTNNB1 to inhibit the Wntsignaling pathway and ventralize embryos, but also dorsalizesembryos by activating a Wnt-independent JNK signaling pathway(PubMed:12192039) In Wnt signaling, probably facilitates thephosphorylation of CTNNB1 and APC by GSK3B (PubMed:12192039)Likely to function as a tumor suppressor Enhances TGF-betasignaling by recruiting the RNF111 E3 ubiquitin ligase andpromoting the degradation of inhibitory SMAD7 (PubMed:16601693)Also component of the AXIN1-HIPK2-TP53 complex which controls cellgrowth, apoptosis and development (PubMed:17210684) Facilitatesthe phosphorylation of TP53 by HIPK2 upon ultraviolet irradiation(PubMed:17210684)
Wnt proteins are secreted morphogens that are required for basic developmental processes, such as cell-fate specification, progenitor-cell proliferation and the control of asymmetric cell division, in many different species and organs. There are at least three different Wnt pathways: the canonical pathway, the planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway and the Wnt/Ca2+ pathway. In the canonical Wnt pathway, the major effect of Wnt ligand binding to its receptor is the stabilization of cytoplasmic beta-catenin through inhibition of the bea-catenin degradation complex. Beta-catenin is then free to enter the nucleus and activate Wnt-regulated genes through its interaction with TCF (T-cell factor) family transcription factors and concomitant recruitment of coactivators. Planar cell polarity (PCP) signaling leads to the activation of the small GTPases RHOA (RAS homologue gene-family member A) and RAC1, which activate the stress kinase JNK (Jun N-terminal kinase) and ROCK (RHO-associated coiled-coil-containing protein kinase 1) and leads to remodelling of the cytoskeleton and changes in cell adhesion and motility. WNT-Ca2+ signalling is mediated through G proteins and phospholipases and leads to transient increases in cytoplasmic free calcium that subsequently activate the kinase PKC (protein kinase C) and CAMKII (calcium calmodulin mediated kinase II) and the phosphatase calcineurin.
Hippo signaling is an evolutionarily conserved signaling pathway that controls organ size from flies to humans. In humans and mice, the pathway consists of the MST1 and MST2 kinases, their cofactor Salvador and LATS1 and LATS2. In response to high cell densities, activated LATS1/2 phosphorylates the transcriptional coactivators YAP and TAZ, promoting its cytoplasmic localization, leading to cell apoptosis and restricting organ size overgrowth. When the Hippo pathway is inactivated at low cell density, YAP/TAZ translocates into the nucleus to bind to the transcription enhancer factor (TEAD/TEF) family of transcriptional factors to promote cell growth and proliferation. YAP/TAZ also interacts with other transcriptional factors or signaling molecules, by which Hippo pathway-mediated processes are interconnected with those of other key signaling cascades, such as those mediated by TGF-beta and Wnt growth factors.
Pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) are basic cells with an indefinite self-renewal capacity and the potential to generate all the cell types of the three germinal layers. The types of PSCs known to date include embryonic stem (ES) and induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. ES cells are derived from the inner cell mass (ICM) of blastocyst-stage embryos. iPS cells are generated by reprogramming somatic cells back to pluripotent state with defined reprogramming factors, Oct4, Sox2, Klf4 and c-Myc (also known as Yamanaka factors). PSCs including ES cells and iPS cells are categorized into two groups by their morphology, gene expression profile and external signal dependence. Conventional mouse-type ES/iPS cells are called 'naive state' cells. They are mainly maintained under the control of LIF and BMP signaling. On the other hand, human-type ES/iPS cells, which are in need of Activin and FGF signaling, are termed 'primed state'. However, these signaling pathways converge towards the activation of a core transcriptional network that is similar in both groups and involves OCt4, Nanog and Sox2. The three transcription factors and their downstream target genes coordinately promote self-renewal and pluripotency.
Cushing syndrome (CS) is a rare disorder resulting from prolonged exposure to excess glucocorticoids via exogenous and endogenous sources. The typical clinical features of CS are related to hypercortisolism and include accumulation of central fat, moon facies, neuromuscular weakness, osteoporosis or bone fractures, metabolic complications, and mood changes. Traditionally, endogenous CS is classified as adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-dependent (about 80%) or ACTH- independent (about 20%). Among ACTH-dependent forms, pituitary corticotroph adenoma (Cushing's disease) is most common. Most pituitary tumors are sporadic, resulting from monoclonal expansion of a single mutated cell. Recently recurrent activating somatic driver mutations in the ubiquitin-specific protease 8 gene (USP8) were identified in almost half of corticotroph adenoma. Germline mutations in MEN1 (encoding menin), AIP (encoding aryl-hydrocarbon receptor-interacting protein), PRKAR1A (encoding cAMP-dependent protein kinase type I alpha regulatory subunit) and CDKN1B (encoding cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor 1B; also known as p27 Kip1) have been identified in familial forms of pituitary adenomas. However, the frequency of familial pituitary adenomas is less than 5% in patients with pituitary adenomas. Among ACTH-independent CS, adrenal adenoma is most common. Rare adrenal causes of CS include primary bilateral macronodular adrenal hyperplasia (BMAH) or primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease (PPNAD).
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a non-enveloped, double-stranded DNA virus. HPV infect mucoal and cutaneous epithelium resulting in several types of pathologies, most notably, cervical cancer. All types of HPV share a common genomic structure and encode eight proteins: E1, E2, E4, E5, E6, and E7 (early) and L1 and L2 (late). It has been demonstrated that E1 and E2 are involved in viral transcription and replication. The functions of the E4 protein is not yet fully understood. E5, E6, and E7 act as oncoproteins. E5 inhibits the V-ATPase, prolonging EGFR signaling and thereby promoting cell proliferation. The expression of E6 and E7 not only inhibits the tumor suppressors p53 and Rb, but also alters additional signalling pathways. Among these pathways, PI3K/Akt signalling cascade plays a very important role in HPV-induced carcinogenesis. The L1 and L2 proteins form icosahedral capsids for progeny virion generation.
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second largest cause of cancer-related deaths in Western countries. CRC arises from the colorectal epithelium as a result of the accumulation of genetic alterations in defined oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes (TSG). Two major mechanisms of genomic instability have been identified in sporadic CRC progression. The first, known as chromosomal instability (CIN), results from a series of genetic changes that involve the activation of oncogenes such as K-ras and inactivation of TSG such as p53, DCC/Smad4, and APC. The second, known as microsatellite instability (MSI), results from inactivation of the DNA mismatch repair genes MLH1 and/or MSH2 by hypermethylation of their promoter, and secondary mutation of genes with coding microsatellites, such as transforming growth factor receptor II (TGF-RII) and BAX. Hereditary syndromes have germline mutations in specific genes (mutation in the tumour suppressor gene APC on chromosome 5q in FAP, mutated DNA mismatch repair genes in HNPCC).
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the most common gynaecological malignancy and the fourth most common malignancy in women in the developed world after breast, colorectal and lung cancer. Two types of endometrial carcinoma are distinguished with respect to biology and clinical course. Type-I carcinoma is related to hyperestrogenism by association with endometrial hyperplasia, frequent expression of estrogen and progesterone receptors and younger age, whereas type-II carcinoma is unrelated to estrogen, associated with atrophic endometrium, frequent lack of estrogen and progesterone receptors and older age. The morphologic differences in these cancers are mirrored in their molecular genetic profile with type I showing defects in DNA-mismatch repair and mutations in PTEN, K-ras, and beta-catenin, and type II showing aneuploidy, p53 mutations, and her2/neu amplification.
Cancer of the skin is the most common cancer in Caucasians and basal cell carcinomas (BCC) account for 90% of all skin cancers. The vast majority of BCC cases are sporadic, though there is a rare familial syndrome basal cell nevus syndrome (BCNS, or Gorlin syndrome) that predisposes to development of BCC. In addition, there is strong epidemiological and genetic evidence that demonstrates UV exposure as a risk factor of prime importance. The development of basal cell carcinoma is associated with constitutive activation of sonic hedgehog signaling. The mutations in SMOH, PTCH1, and SHH in BCCs result in continuous activation of target genes. At a cellular level, sonic hedgehog signaling promotes cell proliferation. Mutations in TP53 are also found with high frequency (>50%) in sporadic BCC.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer death among women worldwide. The vast majority of breast cancers are carcinomas that originate from cells lining the milk-forming ducts of the mammary gland. The molecular subtypes of breast cancer, which are based on the presence or absence of hormone receptors (estrogen and progesterone subtypes) and human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2), include: hormone receptor positive and HER2 negative (luminal A subtype), hormone receptor positive and HER2 positive (luminal B subtype), hormone receptor negative and HER2 positive (HER2 positive), and hormone receptor negative and HER2 negative (basal-like or triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs)). Hormone receptor positive breast cancers are largely driven by the estrogen/ER pathway. In HER2 positive breast tumours, HER2 activates the PI3K/AKT and the RAS/RAF/MAPK pathways, and stimulate cell growth, survival and differentiation. In patients suffering from TNBC, the deregulation of various signalling pathways (Notch and Wnt/beta-catenin), EGFR protein have been confirmed. In the case of breast cancer only 8% of all cancers are hereditary, a phenomenon linked to genetic changes in BRCA1 or BRCA2. Somatic mutations in only three genes (TP53, PIK3CA and GATA3) occurred at >10% incidence across all breast cancers.
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major type of primary liver cancer and one of the rare human neoplasms etiologically linked to viral factors. It has been shown that, after HBV/HCV infection and alcohol or aflatoxin B1 exposure, genetic and epigenetic changes occur. The recurrent mutated genes were found to be highly enriched in multiple key driver signaling processes, including telomere maintenance, TP53, cell cycle regulation, the Wnt/beta-catenin pathway (CTNNB1 and AXIN1), the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase (PI3K)/AKT/mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Recent studies using whole-exome sequencing have revealed recurrent mutations in new driver genes involved in the chromatin remodelling (ARID1A and ARID2) and the oxidative stress (NFE2L2) pathways.
Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the world's most common cancers. According to Lauren's histological classification gastric cancer is divided into two distinct histological groups - the intestinal and diffuse types. Several genetic changes have been identified in intestinal-type GC. The intestinal metaplasia is characterized by mutations in p53 gene, reduced expression of retinoic acid receptor beta (RAR-beta) and hTERT expression. Gastric adenomas furthermore display mutations in the APC gene, reduced p27 expression and cyclin E amplification. In addition, amplification and overexpression of c-ErbB2, reduced TGF-beta receptor type I (TGFBRI) expression and complete loss of p27 expression are commonly observed in more advanced GC. The main molecular changes observed in diffuse-type GCs include loss of E-cadherin function by mutations in CDH1 and amplification of MET and FGFR2F.
The beta-catenin destruction complex plays a key role in the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. In the absence of Wnt signaling, this complex controls the levels of cytoplamic beta-catenin. Beta-catenin associates with and is phosphorylated by the destruction complex. Phosphorylated beta-catenin is recognized and ubiquitinated by the SCF-beta TrCP ubiquitin ligase complex and is subsequently degraded by the proteasome (reviewed in Kimelman and Xu, 2006)
Degradation of beta-catenin is initiated following amino-terminal serine/threonine phosphorylation. Phosphorylation of B-catenin at S45 by CK1 alpha primes the subsequent sequential GSK-3-mediated phosphorylation at Thr41, Ser37 and Ser33 (Amit et al., 2002 ; Lui et al., 2002)
19 WNT ligands and 10 FZD receptors have been identified in human cells; interactions amongst these ligands and receptors vary in a developmental and tissue-specific manner and lead to activation of so-called 'canonical' and 'non-canonical' WNT signaling. In the canonical WNT signaling pathway, binding of a WNT ligand to the Frizzled (FZD) and lipoprotein receptor-related protein (LRP) receptors results in the inactivation of the destruction complex, the stabilization and nuclear translocation of beta-catenin and subsequent activation of T-cell factor/lymphoid enhancing factor (TCF/LEF)-dependent transcription. Transcriptional activation in response to canonical WNT signaling controls processes such as cell fate, proliferation and self renewal of stem cells, as well as contributing to oncogenesis (reviewed in MacDonald et al, 2009; Saito-Diaz et al, 2013; Kim et al, 2013)
AXIN is present in low concentrations in the cell and is considered to be the limiting component of the beta-catenin destruction complex in Xenopus; this may not be the case in mammalian cells, however (Lee et al, 2003; Tan et al, 2012). Cellular levels of AXIN are regulated in part through ubiquitin-mediated turnover. E3 ligases SMURF2 and RNF146 have both been shown to play a role in promoting the degradation of AXIN by the 26S proteasome (Kim and Jho, 2010; Callow et al, 2011; Zhang et al, 2011)
Upon stimulation with WNT ligand, AXIN and GSK3beta are recruited to the plasma membrane through interaction with DVL (Tamai et al, 2004; Mao et al, 2001; reviewed in He et al, 2004). Polymerization of membrane-associated DVL and GSK3beta- and CSNK1-mediated phosphorylation of LRP5/6 establish a feed-forward mechanism for enhanced membrane recruitment of AXIN upon WNT signaling (Tamai et al, 2004; Cong et al, 2004; Zeng et al, 2005; Bilic et al, 2007). In Xenopus oocytes, but not necessarily all sytems, AXIN is present in limiting concentrations and is considered rate limiting for the assembly of the destruction complex (Lee et al, 2003; Benchabane et al, 2008; Tan et al, 2012; reviewed in MacDonald et al, 2009). The recruitment of AXIN away from the destruction complex upon WNT stimulation effectively destabilizes the destruction complex and contributes to the accumulation of free beta-catenin (Kikuchi, 1999; Lee et al, 2003). AXIN association with the destruction complex is also regulated by phosphorylation. In the active destruction complex, AXIN is phosphorylated by GSK3beta; dephosphorylation by protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) or protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) destabilizes the interaction of AXIN with the other components of the destruction complex and promotes its disassembly (Luo et al, 2007; Willert et al, 1999; Jho et al, 1999). Free AXIN is also subject to degradation by the 26S proteasome in a manner that depends on the poly-ADP-ribosylating enzymes tankyrase 1 and 2 (Huang et al, 2009)
GSK3beta is subject to in-frame missplicing in CML stem cells resulting in the production of mutant protein that lacks the AXIN and FRAT binding domains. Cells containing this mutant GSK3beta show elevated levels of nuclear beta-catenin and enhanced TCF-dependent reporter activity (Jamieson et al, 2008; Abrahamsson et al, 2009)
S33 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear localization of the protein and enhanced WNT signaling (Groen et al, 2008; Nhieu et al, 1999; Clements et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis, 2000). S33 mutations have been identified in cancers of the central nervous system, liver, endometrium and stomach, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000)
S37 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and stabilize the protein, resulting in enhanced WNT pathway signaling (Nhieu et al, 1999; Clements et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis, 2000). S37 mutations have been identified in cancers of the brain, liver, ovary and large intestine, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000)
S45 mutants of beta-catenin have been identified in colorectal and hepatocellular carcinomas, soft tissue cancer and Wilms Tumors, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000). These mutations abolish the CK1alpha phosphorylation site of beta-catenin which acts as a critical priming site for GSK3 phosphorylation of T41( and subsequently S37 and S33) thus preventing its ubiquitin-mediated degradation (Morin et al, 1997; Amit et al, 2002)
T41 mutations of beta-catenin interfere with GSK3 phosphorylation and result in stabilization and nuclear accumulation of the protein (Moreno-Bueno et al, 2002; Taniguchi et al, 2002; reviewed in Polakis, 2012). T41 mutations have been identified in cancers of the liver and brain, as well as in the pituitary, endometrium, large intestine and skin, among others (reviewed in Polakis, 2000; Saito-Diaz et al, 2013)
Mutations in the APC tumor suppressor gene are common in colorectal and other cancers and cluster in the central mutation cluster region (MCR) of the gene (Miyoshi et al, 1992; Nagase and Nakamura, 1993; Dihlmann et al, 1999; reviewed in Bienz and Clevers, 2000). These mutations generally result in truncated proteins that destabilize the destruction complex and result in elevated WNT pathway activation (reviewed in Polakis, 2000)
Alterations in AXIN1 have been detected in a number of different cancers including liver and colorectal cancer and medullablastoma, among others (reviewed in Salahshor and Woodgett, 2005). Missense and nonsense mutations that disrupt or remove protein-protein interaction domains are common, and AXIN variants in cancers tend to disrupt the formation of a functional destruction complex (Satoh et al, 2000; Taniguchi et al, 2002; Webster et al, 2000; Shimizu et al, 2002)
AMER1/WTX is a known component of the destruction complex and interacts directly with beta-catenin through the C-terminal half (Major et al, 2007). siRNA depletion of AMER1 in mammalian cells stabilizes cellular beta-catenin levels and increases the expression of a beta-catenin-dependent reporter gene, suggesting that AMER1 is a tumor suppressor gene (Major et al, 2007; reviewed in Huff, 2011). Consistent with this, nonsense and missense mutations that truncate AMER1 and result in loss of the beta-catenin binding region have been identified in Wilms tumor, a pediatric kidney cancer (Ruteshouser et al, 2008; Wegert et al, 2009)
Ub-specific processing proteases (USPs) are the largest of the DUB families with more than 50 members in humans. The USP catalytic domain varies considerably in size and consists of six conserved motifs with N- or C-terminal extensions and insertions occurring between the conserved motifs (Ye et al. 2009). Two highly conserved regions comprise the catalytic triad, the Cys-box (Cys) and His-box (His and Asp/Asn) (Nijman et al. 2005, Ye et al. 2009, Reyes-Turcu & Wilkinson 2009). They recognize their substrates by interactions of the variable regions with the substrate protein directly, or via scaffolds or adapters in multiprotein complexes
The RUNX1:CBFB complex can associate with the activated estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) through direct interaction between RUNX1 and ESR1. The RUNX1:CBFB complex is thus involved in transcriptional regulation of estrogen responsive genes, including GPAM, KCTD6 and AXIN1 (Stender et al. 2010). High GPAM expression correlates with better overall survival in breast cancer (Brockmoller et al. 2012)
The RUNX1:CBFB complex directly regulates transcription of at least two components of WNT signaling. In association with its co-factor FOXP3, the RUNX1:CBFB complex stimulates transcription of the RSPO3 gene, encoding a WNT ligand that is implicated as a breast cancer oncogene (Recouvreux et al. 2016). In association with the activated estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1), the RUNX1:CBFB complex stimulates the expression of AXIN1, which functions as a regulator of WNT signaling (Stender et al. 2010)
Estrogens mediate their transcriptional effects through interaction with the estrogen receptors, ESR1 (also known as ER alpha) and ESR2 (ER beta). ESR1 and ESR2 share overlapping but distinct functions, with ESR1 playing the primary role in transcriptional activation in most cell types (Hah and Krauss, 2014; Haldosén et al, 2014. The receptors function as ligand-dependent dimers and can activate target genes either through direct binding to an estrogen responsive element (ERE) in the target gene promoter, or indirectly through interaction with another DNA-binding protein such as RUNX1, SP1, AP1 or NF-kappa beta (reviewed in Bai and Gust, 2009; Hah and Krause, 2014). Binding of estrogen receptors to the DNA promotes the assembly of higher order transcriptional complexes containing methyltransferases, histone acetyltransferases and other transcriptional activators, which promote transcription by establishing active chromatin marks and by recruiting general transcription factors and RNA polymerase II. ESR1- and estrogen-dependent recruitment of up to hundreds of coregulators has been demonstrated by varied co-immunoprecipitation and proteomic approaches (Kittler et al, 2013; Mohammed et al, 2013; Foulds et al, 2013; Mohammed et al, 2015; Liu et al, 2014; reviewed in Magnani and Lupien, 2014; Arnal, 2017). In some circumstances, ligand-bound receptors can also promote the assembly of a repression complex at a target gene, and in some cases, heterodimers of ESR1 and ESR2 serve as repressors of ESR1-mediated target gene activation (reviewed in Hah and Kraus, 2014; Arnal et al, 2017). Phosphorylation of the estrogen receptor also modulates its activity, and provides cross-talk between nuclear estrogen-dependent signaling and non-genomic estrogen signaling from the plasma membrane (reviewed in Anbalagan and Rowan, 2015; Halodsèn et al, 2014; Schwartz et al, 2016) A number of recent genome wide studies highlight the breadth of the transcriptional response to estrogen. The number of predicted estrogen-dependent target genes ranges from a couple of hundred (based on microarray studies) to upwards of 10000, based on ChIP-chip or ChIP-seq (Cheung and Kraus, 2010; Kinnis and Kraus, 2008; Lin et al, 2004; Welboren et al, 2009; Ikeda et al, 2015; Lin et al, 2007; Carroll et al, 2006). Many of these predicted sites may not represent transcriptionally productive binding events, however. A study examining ESR1 binding by ChIP-seq in 20 primary breast cancers identified a core of 484 ESR-binding events that were conserved in at least 75% of ER+ tumors, which may represent a more realistic estimate (Ross-Innes et al, 2012). These studies also highlight the long-range effect of estrogen receptor-binding, with distal enhancer or promoter elements regulating the expression of many target genes, often through looping or other higher order chromatin structures (Kittler et al, 2013; reviewed in Dietz and Carroll, 2008; Liu and Cheung, 2014; Magnani and Lupien, 2014). Transcription from a number of estrogen-responsive target genes also appears to be primed by the binding of pioneering transcription factors such as FOXA1, GATA3, PBX1 among others