Collapse Statistics
241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last update: 11 Mar, 2019



Name sphingosine 1-phosphateC06124
Download: mol | sdf
Synonyms0(2s,3r,4e)-2-amino-4-octadecene-1,3-diol 1-(dihydrogen phosphate);
(2s,3r,4e)-2-azaniumyl-3-hydroxyoctadec-4-en-1-yl phosphate;
Sphing-4-enine 1-phosphate;
Sphingosine 1-phosphate;
Definition A phosphosphingolipid that consists of sphingosine having a phospho group attached at position 1
Molecular Weight
(Exact mass)
379.4718 (379.2488)
Molecular Formula C18H38NO5P
InChI InChI=1S/C18H38NO5P/c1-2-3-4-5-6-7-8-9-10-11-12-13-14-15-18(20)17(19)16-24-25(21,22)23/h14-15,17-18,20H,2-13,16,19H2,1H3,(H2,21,22,23)/b15-14+/t17-,18+/m0/s1
Crosslinking annotations KEGG:C06124 | 3DMET:B05165 | CAS:26993-30-6 | ChEBI:37550 | ChEMBL:CHEMBL225155 | LIPIDMAPS:LMSP01050001 | LipidBank:PSP6001 | NIKKAJI:J627.163D | PDB-CCD:S1P | PubChem:8381

Pathway ID Pathway Name Pathway Description (KEGG)
map00600Sphingolipid metabolismNA
map01100Metabolic pathwaysNA
map04020Calcium signaling pathwayCa2+ that enters the cell from the outside is a principal source of signal Ca2+. Entry of Ca2+ is driven by the presence of a large electrochemical gradient across the plasma membrane. Cells use this external source of signal Ca2+ by activating various entry channels with widely different properties. The voltage-operated channels (VOCs) are found in excitable cells and generate the rapid Ca2+ fluxes that control fast cellular processes. There are many other Ca2+-entry channels, such as the receptor-operated channels (ROCs), for example the NMDA (N-methyl-D-aspartate) receptors (NMDARs) that respond to glutamate. There also are second-messenger-operated channels (SMOCs) and store-operated channels (SOCs).The other principal source of Ca2+ for signalling is the internal stores that are located primarily in the endoplasmic/sarcoplasmic reticulum (ER/SR), in which inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) or ryanodine receptors (RYRs) regulate the release of Ca2+. The principal activator of these channels is Ca2+ itself and this process of Ca2+-induced Ca2+ release is central to the mechanism of Ca2+ signalling. Various second messengers or modulators also control the release of Ca2+. IP3, which is generated by pathways using different isoforms of phospholipase C (PLCbeta, delta, epsilon, gamma and zeta), regulates the IP3Rs. Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) releases Ca2+ via RYRs. Nicotinic acid adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAADP) may activate a distinct Ca2+ release mechanism on separate acidic Ca2+ stores. Ca2+ release via the NAADP-sensitive mechanism may also feedback onto either RYRs or IP3Rs. cADPR and NAADP are generated by CD38. This enzyme might be sensitive to the cellular metabolism, as ATP and NADH inhibit it.The influx of Ca2+ from the environment or release from internal stores causes a very rapid and dramatic increase in cytoplasmic calcium concentration, which has been widely exploited for signal transduction. Some proteins, such as troponin C (TnC) involved in muscle contraction, directly bind to and sense Ca2+. However, in other cases Ca2+ is sensed through intermediate calcium sensors such as calmodulin (CALM).
map04071Sphingolipid signaling pathwaySphingomyelin (SM) and its metabolic products are now known to have second messenger functions in a variety of cellular signaling pathways. Particularly, the sphingolipid metabolites, ceramide (Cer) and sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), have emerged as a new class of potent bioactive molecules. Ceramide can be generated de novo or by hydrolysis of membrane sphingomyelin by sphingomyelinase (SMase). Ceramide is subsequently metabolized by ceramidase to generate sphingosine (Sph) which in turn produces S1P through phosphorylation by sphingosine kinases 1 and 2 (SphK1, 2). Both ceramide and S1P regulate cellular responses to stress, with generally opposing effects. S1P functions as a growth and survival factor, acting as a ligand for a family of G protein-coupled receptors, whereas ceramide activates intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic pathways through receptor-independent mechanisms.
map04072Phospholipase D signaling pathwayPhospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival. PLD activity can be stimulated by a large number of cell surface receptors and is elaborately regulated by intracellular factors, including protein kinase C isoforms, small GTPases of the ARF, Rho and Ras families and the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The PLD-produced PA activates signaling proteins and acts as a node within the membrane to which signaling proteins translocate. Several signaling proteins, including Raf-1 and mTOR, directly bind PA to mediate translocation or activation, respectively.
map04080Neuroactive ligand-receptor interactionNA
map04371Apelin signaling pathwayApelin is an endogenous peptide capable of binding the apelin receptor (APJ), which was originally described as an orphan G-protein-coupled receptor. Apelin and APJ are widely expressed in various tissues and organ systems. They are implicated in different key physiological processes such as angiogenesis, cardiovascular functions, cell proliferation and energy metabolism regulation. On the other hand, this ligand receptor couple is also involved in several pathologies including diabetes, obesity, cardiovascular disease and cancer.
map04666Fc gamma R-mediated phagocytosisPhagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes take part in this process in higher organisms. After opsonization with antibodies (IgG), foreign extracellular materials are recognized by Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptors initiates a variety of signals mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, which lead through the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane remodeling to the formation of phagosomes. Nascent phagosomes undergo a process of maturation that involves fusion with lysosomes. The acquisition of lysosomal proteases and release of reactive oxygen species are crucial for digestion of engulfed materials in phagosomes.
map05152TuberculosisTuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent infections, and about 10% of latent infections develop active diseases when their immune system is impaired due to the age, other diseases such as AIDS or exposure to immunosuppressive drugs. TB is transmitted through the air and primarily attacks the lungs, then it can spread by the circulatory system to other parts of body. Once TB bacilli have entered the host by the respiratory route and infected macrophages in the lungs, they interfere with phagosomal maturation, antigen presentation, apoptosis and host immune system to establish persistent or latent infection.