241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Cell membrane Nucleus CytoplasmCytoplasm, perinuclear region Golgi apparatus Membrane Note=Accumulates in thenucleus by inhibition of CRM1-mediated nuclear export Nuclearaccumulation is increased by inhibition of its kinase activityThe trafficking from the Golgi apparatus to the plasma membraneoccurs in a kinase domain-dependent but kinase activityindependent manner and is mediated by exocytic vesiculartransport Detected on plasma membrane lipid rafts
Function (UniProt annotation)
Non-receptor tyrosine-protein kinase that transmitssignals from cell surface receptors and plays an important role inthe regulation of innate and adaptive immune responses,hematopoiesis, responses to growth factors and cytokines, integrinsignaling, but also responses to DNA damage and genotoxic agentsFunctions primarily as negative regulator, but can also functionas activator, depending on the context Required for theinitiation of the B-cell response, but also for its down-regulation and termination Plays an important role in theregulation of B-cell differentiation, proliferation, survival andapoptosis, and is important for immune self-tolerance Actsdownstream of several immune receptors, including the B-cellreceptor, CD79A, CD79B, CD5, CD19, CD22, FCER1, FCGR2, FCGR1A,TLR2 and TLR4 Plays a role in the inflammatory response tobacterial lipopolysaccharide Mediates the responses to cytokinesand growth factors in hematopoietic progenitors, platelets,erythrocytes, and in mature myeloid cells, such as dendriticcells, neutrophils and eosinophils Acts downstream of EPOR, KIT,MPL, the chemokine receptor CXCR4, as well as the receptors forIL3, IL5 and CSF2 Plays an important role in integrin signalingRegulates cell proliferation, survival, differentiation,migration, adhesion, degranulation, and cytokine release Down-regulates signaling pathways by phosphorylation of immunoreceptortyrosine-based inhibitory motifs (ITIM), that then serve asbinding sites for phosphatases, such as PTPN6/SHP-1, PTPN11/SHP-2and INPP5D/SHIP-1, that modulate signaling by dephosphorylation ofkinases and their substrates Phosphorylates LIME1 in response toCD22 activation Phosphorylates BTK, CBL, CD5, CD19, CD72, CD79A,CD79B, CSF2RB, DOK1, HCLS1, LILRB3/PIR-B, MS4A2/FCER1B, SYK andTEC Promotes phosphorylation of SIRPA, PTPN6/SHP-1, PTPN11/SHP-2and INPP5D/SHIP-1 Mediates phosphorylation of the BCR-ABL fusionprotein Required for rapid phosphorylation of FER in response toFCER1 activation Mediates KIT phosphorylation Acts as aneffector of EPOR (erythropoietin receptor) in controlling KITexpression and may play a role in erythroid differentiation duringthe switch between proliferation and maturation Depending on thecontext, activates or inhibits several signaling cascadesRegulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase activity and AKT1activation Regulates activation of the MAP kinase signalingcascade, including activation of MAP2K1/MEK1, MAPK1/ERK2,MAPK3/ERK1, MAPK8/JNK1 and MAPK9/JNK2 Mediates activation ofSTAT5A and/or STAT5B Phosphorylates LPXN on 'Tyr-72' Kinaseactivity facilitates TLR4-TLR6 heterodimerization and signalinitiation
Catalytic Activity (UniProt annotation)
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a[protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
Inflammatory immune response requires the recruitment of leukocytes to the site of inflammation upon foreign insult. Chemokines are small chemoattractant peptides that provide directional cues for the cell trafficking and thus are vital for protective host response. In addition, chemokines regulate plethora of biological processes of hematopoietic cells to lead cellular activation, differentiation and survival.The chemokine signal is transduced by chemokine receptors (G-protein coupled receptors) expressed on the immune cells. After receptor activation, the alpha- and beta-gamma-subunits of G protein dissociate to activate diverse downstream pathways resulting in cellular polarization and actin reorganization. Various members of small GTPases are involved in this process. Induction of nitric oxide and production of reactive oxygen species are as well regulated by chemokine signal via calcium mobilization and diacylglycerol production.
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are several pathways leading to NF-kappa B-activation. The canonical pathway is induced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1) or byproducts of bacterial and viral infections. This pathway relies on IKK- mediated IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation on Ser32 and 36, leading to its degradation, which allows the p50/p65 NF-kappa B dimer to enter the nucleus and activate gene transcription. Atypical pathways are IKK-independent and rely on phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha on Tyr42 or on Ser residues in IkappaB-alpha PEST domain. The non-canonical pathway is triggered by particular members of the TNFR superfamily, such as lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) or BAFF. It involves NIK and IKK-alpha-mediated p100 phosphorylation and processing to p52, resulting in nuclear translocation of p52/RelB heterodimers.
Platelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by adhesion to adhesive macromolecules, such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF), or by soluble platelet agonists, such as ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. Different receptors are stimulated by various agonists, almost converging in increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration that stimulate platelet shape change and granule secretion and ultimately induce the inside-outsignaling process leading to activation of the ligand-binding function of integrin alpha IIb beta 3. Binding of alpha IIb beta 3 to its ligands, mainly fibrinogen, mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers outside-insignaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction.
B cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor (BCR) is an integral membrane protein complex that is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, two Ig light chains and two heterodimers of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta. After BCR ligation by antigen, three main protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) -the SRC-family kinase LYN, SYK and the TEC-family kinase BTK- are activated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma 2) are important downstream effectors of BCR signalling. This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and Ig production as well as other processes.
Fc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation pathways are regulated both positively and negatively by the interactions of numerous signaling molecules. Mast cells that are thus activated release preformed granules which contain biogenic amines (especially histamines) and proteoglycans (especially heparin). The activation of phospholipase A2 causes the release of membrane lipids followed by development of lipid mediators such as leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) and prostaglandins (especially PDG2). There is also secretion of cytokines, the most important of which are TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-5. These mediators and cytokines contribute to inflammatory responses.
Phagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes take part in this process in higher organisms. After opsonization with antibodies (IgG), foreign extracellular materials are recognized by Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptors initiates a variety of signals mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, which lead through the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane remodeling to the formation of phagosomes. Nascent phagosomes undergo a process of maturation that involves fusion with lysosomes. The acquisition of lysosomal proteases and release of reactive oxygen species are crucial for digestion of engulfed materials in phagosomes.
Cerebellar long-term depression (LTD), thought to be a molecular and cellular basis for cerebellar learning, is a process involving a decrease in the synaptic strength between parallel fiber (PF) and Purkinje cells (PCs) induced by the conjunctive activation of PFs and climbing fiber (CF). Multiple signal transduction pathways have been shown to be involved in this process. Activation of PFs terminating on spines in dendritic branchlets leads to glutamate release and activation of both AMPA and mGluRs. Activation of CFs, which make multiple synaptic contacts on proximal dendrites, also via AMPA receptors, opens voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) and causes a generalized influx of calcium. These cellular signals, generated from two different synaptic origins, trigger a cascade of events culminating in a phosphorylation-dependent, long-term reduction in AMPA receptor sensitivity at the PF-PC synapse. This may take place either through receptor internalization and/or through receptor desensitization.
Two major virulence factors of H. pylori are the vacuolating cytotoxin (VacA) and the cag type-IV secretion system (T4SS) and its translocated effector protein, cytotoxin-associated antigen A (CagA).VacA binds to lipid rafts and glycosylphosphatidylinositol-anchored proteins (GPI-APs) of the target cell membrane. After insertion into the plasma membrane, VacA channels are endocytosed and eventually reach late endosomal compartments, increasing their permeability to anions with enhancement of the electrogenic vacuolar ATPase (v-ATPase) proton pump. In the presence of weak bases, osmotically active acidotropic ions will accumulate in the endosomes. This leads to water influx and vesicle swelling, an essential step in vacuole formation. In addition, it is reported that the VacA cleavage product binds to the tyrosine phosphatase receptor zeta (Ptprz) on epithelial cells and the induced signaling leads to the phosphorylation of the G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interactor 1 (Git1) and induces ulcerogenesis in mice.The other virulence factor cag T4SS mediates the translocation of the effector protein CagA, which is subsequently phosphorylated by a Src kinase. Phosphorylated CagA interacts with the protein tyrosine phosphatase SHP-2, thus stimulating its phosphatase activity. Activated SHP-2 is able to induce MAPK signalling through Ras/Raf-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Deregulation of this pathway by CagA may lead to abnormal proliferation and movement of gastric epithelial cells.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the most recently identified human tumor virus, and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Like all other herpesviruses, KSHV displays two modes of life cycle, latency and lytic replication, which are characterized by the patterns of viral gene expression. Genes expressed in latency (LANA, v-cyclin, v-FLIP, Kaposins A, B and C and viral miRNAs) are mainly thought to facilitate the establishment of life long latency in its host and survival against the host innate, and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms. Among the viral proteins shown to be expressed during lytic replication are potent signaling molecules such as vGPCR, vIL6, vIRFs, vCCLs, K1 and K15, which have been implicated experimentally in the angiogenic and inflammatory phenotype observed in KS lesions. Several of these latent viral and lytic proteins are known to transform host cells, linking KSHV with the development of severe human malignancies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. EBV has been linked to a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other hematologic cancers, like Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma in HIV patients, and posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV expresses a small subset of genes, including 6 nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP), 3 latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A, and -2B), 2 small noncoding RNAs (EBER-1 and 2). On the basis of these latent gene expression, three different latency patterns associated with the types of cancers are recognized.
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
The GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FcR). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI-FcR complex in platelets and initiate platelet activation through phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in the FcR gamma chain, leading to binding and activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk. Downstream of Syk, a series of adapter molecules and effectors lead to platelet activation. The GPVI receptor signaling cascade is similar to that of T- and B-cell immune receptors, involving the formation of a signalosome composed of adapter and effector proteins. At the core of the T-cell receptor signalosome is the transmembrane adapter LAT and two cytosolic adapters SLP-76 and Gads. While LAT is essential for signalling to PLCgamma1 downstream of the T-cell receptor, the absence of LAT in platelets only impairs the activation of PLCgamma2, the response to collagen and GPVI receptor ligands remains sufficient to elicit a full aggregation response. In contrast, GPVI signalling is almost entirely abolished in the absence of SLP-76
Stem cell factor (SCF) is a growth factor with membrane bound and soluble forms. It is expressed by fibroblasts and endothelial cells throughout the body, promoting proliferation, migration, survival and differentiation of hematopoetic progenitors, melanocytes and germ cells.(Linnekin 1999, Ronnstrand 2004, Lennartsson and Ronnstrand 2006). The receptor for SCF is KIT, a tyrosine kinase receptor (RTK) closely related to the receptors for platelet derived growth factor receptor, colony stimulating factor 1 (Linnekin 1999) and Flt3 (Rosnet et al. 1991). Four isoforms of c-Kit have been identified in humans. Alternative splicing results in isoforms of KIT differing in the presence or absence of four residues (GNNK) in the extracellular region. This occurs due to the use of an alternate 5' splice donor site. These GNNK+ and GNNK- variants are co-expressed in most tissues; the GNNK- form predominates and was more strongly tyrosine-phosphorylated and more rapidly internalized (Ronnstrand 2004). There are also splice variants that arise from alternative usage of splice acceptor site resulting in the presence or absence of a serine residue (Crosier et al., 1993). Finally, there is an alternative shorter transcript of KIT expressed in postmeiotic germ cells in the testis which encodes a truncated KIT consisting only of the second part of the kinase domain and thus lackig the extracellular and transmembrane domains as well as the first part of the kinase domain (Rossi et al. 1991). Binding of SCF homodimers to KIT results in KIT homodimerization followed by activation of its intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity. KIT stimulation activates a wide array of signalling pathways including MAPK, PI3K and JAK/STAT (Reber et al. 2006, Ronnstrand 2004). Defects of KIT in humans are associated with different genetic diseases and also in several types of cancers like mast cell leukaemia, germ cell tumours, certain subtypes of malignant melanoma and gastrointestinal tumours
Leukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are required for leukocytes to withstand local flow at the vessel wall is a multistep process mediated by different adhesion molecules. Platelets adhered to injured vessel walls form strong adhesive substrates for leukocytes. For instance, the initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes over the site of injury are mediated by reversible binding of selectins to their cognate cell-surface glycoconjugates.
\r\n\r\nEndothelial cells are tightly connected through various proteins, which regulate the organization of the junctional complex and bind to cytoskeletal proteins or cytoplasmic interaction partners that allow the transfer of intracellular signals. An important role for these junctional proteins in governing the transendothelial migration of leukocytes under normal or inflammatory conditions has been established.
\r\n\r\nThis pathway describes some of the key interactions that assist in the process of platelet and leukocyte interaction with the endothelium, in response to injury
Cross-linking of FCGRs with IgG coated immune complexes results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the immuno tyrosine activation motif (ITAMs) of the rececptor by membrane-bound tyrosine kinases of the SRC family. The phosphorylated ITAM tyrosines serve as docking sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing SYK kinase. Recruitment and activation of SYK is critical for FCGR-mediated signaling in phagocytosis, but the exact role of SYK in this process is unclear. Activated SYK then transmits downstream signals leading to actin polymerization and particle internalization
PECAM-1/CD31 is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily (IgSF) and has been implicated to mediate the adhesion and trans-endothelial migration of T-lymphocytes into the vascular wall, T cell activation and angiogenesis. It has six Ig homology domains within its extracellularly and an ITIM motif within its cytoplasmic region. PECAM-1 mediates cellular interactions by both homophilic and heterophilic interactions. The cytoplasmic domain of PECAM-1 contains tyrosine residues which serves as docking sites for recruitment of cytosolic signaling molecules. Under conditions of platelet activation, PECAM-1 is phosphorylated by Src kinase members. The tyrosine residues 663 and 686 are required for recruitment of the SH2 domain containing PTPs
Mast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions. Activation through FCERI-bound antigen-specific IgE causes release of potent inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, proteases, chemotactic factors, cytokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid that act on the vasculature, smooth muscle, connective tissue, mucous glands and inflammatory cells (Borish & Joseph 1992, Amin 2012, Metcalfe et al. 1993). FCERI is a multimeric cell-surface receptor that binds the Fc fragment of IgE with high affinity. On mast cells and basophils FCERI exists as a tetrameric complex consisting of one alpha-chain, one beta-chain, and two disulfide-bonded gamma-chains, and on dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, macrophages, and eosinophils it exists as a trimeric complex with one alpha-chain and two disulfide-bonded gamma-chains (Wu 2011, Kraft & Kinet 2007). FCERI signaling in mast cells includes a network of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. These molecules coordinate ultimately leading to effects on degranulation, eicosanoid production, and cytokine and chemokine production and cell migration and adhesion, growth and survival.The first step in FCERI signaling is the phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues in the ITAM of both the beta and the gamma subunits of the FCERI by LYN, which is bound to the FCERI beta-chain. The phosphorylated ITAM then recruits the protein tyrosine kinase SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) which then phosphorylates the adaptor protein LAT. Phosphorylated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) acts as a scaffolding protein and recruits other cytosolic adaptor molecules GRB2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2), GADS (GRB2-related adaptor protein), SHC (SRC homology 2 (SH2)-domain-containing transforming protein C) and SLP76 (SH2-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa), as well as the exchange factors and adaptor molecules VAV and SOS (son of sevenless homologue), and the signalling enzyme phospholipase C gamma1 (PLC-gamma1). Tyrosoine phosphorylation of enzymes and adaptors, including VAV, SHC GRB2 and SOS stimulate small GTPases such as RAC, RAS and RAF. These pathways lead to activation of the ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, histamine release and cytokine production. FCERI activation also triggers the phosphorylation of PLC-gamma which upon membrane localisation hydrolyse PIP2 to form IP3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) - second messengers that release Ca2+ from internal stores and activate PKC, respectively. Degranulation or histamine release follows the activation of PLC-gamma and protein kinase C (PKC) and the increased mobilization of calcium (Ca2+). Receptor aggregation also results in the phosphorylation of adaptor protein NTAL/LAT2 which then recruits GAB2. PI3K associates with phosphorylated GAB2 and catalyses the formation of PIP3 in the membrane, which attracts many PH domain proteins like BTK, PLC-gamma, AKT and PDK. PI3K mediated activation of AKT then regulate the mast cell proliferation, development and survival (Gu et al. 2001)
During the development process cell migration and adhesion are the main forces involved in morphing the cells into critical anatomical structures. The ability of a cell to migrate to its correct destination depends heavily on signaling at the cell membrane. Erythropoietin producing hepatocellular carcinoma (EPH) receptors and their ligands, the ephrins (EPH receptors interacting proteins, EFNs), orchestrates the precise control necessary to guide a cell to its destination. They are expressed in all tissues of a developing embryo and are involved in multiple developmental processes such as axon guidance, cardiovascular and skeletal development and tissue patterning. In addition, EPH receptors and EFNs are expressed in developing and mature synapses in the nervous system, where they may have a role in regulating synaptic plasticity and long-term potentiation. Activation of EPHB receptors in neurons induces the rapid formation and enlargement of dendritic spines, as well as rapid synapse maturation (Dalva et al. 2007). On the other hand, EPHA4 activation leads to dendritic spine elimination (Murai et al. 2003, Fu et al. 2007).EPH receptors are the largest known family of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), with fourteen total receptors divided into either A- or B-subclasses: EPHA (1-8 and 10) and EPHB (1-4 and 6). EPH receptors can have overlapping functions, and loss of one receptor can be partially compensated for by another EPH receptor that has similar expression pattern and ligand-binding specificities. EPH receptors have an N-terminal extracellular domain through which they bind to ephrin ligands, a short transmembrane domain, and an intracellular cytoplasmic signaling structure containing a canonical tyrosine kinase catalytic domain as well as other protein interaction sites. Ephrins are also sub-divided into an A-subclass (A1-A5), which are tethered to the plasma membrane by a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchor, and a B-subclass (B1-B3), members of which have a transmembrane domain and a short, highly conserved cytoplasmic tail lacking endogenous catalytic activity. The interaction between EPH receptors and its ligands requires cell-cell interaction since both molecules are membrane-bound. Close contact between EPH receptors and EFNs is required for signaling to occur. EPH/EFN-initiated signaling occurs bi-directionally into either EPH- or EFN-expressing cells or axons. Signaling into the EPH receptor-expressing cell is referred as the forward signal and signaling into the EFN-expressing cell, the reverse signal. (Dalva et al. 2000, Grunwald et al. 2004, Davy & Robbins 2000, Cowan et al
The lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell calcium responses. Both LAT and NTAL are expressed and phosphorylated following engagement of FCERI on mast cells. NTAL is functionally and topographically different from LAT. There is a considerable debate on the role of NTAL in mast cell. Depending on the circumstances, NTAL appears to have a dual role as positive and negative regulator of MC responses elicited via FCERI. Studies conducted in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) of mice lacking NTAL displayed enhanced FCERI-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of several substrates, calcium response, degranulation, and cytokine production. This indicated that NTAL negatively regulates FCERI-mediated degranulation. However, in mice lacking both LAT and NTAL showed severe block in FCERI-mediated signaling than BMMCs deficient in LAT alone, suggesting that NTAL also shares a redundant function with LAT to play a positive role (Draberova et al. 2007, Orr & McVicar. 2011, Zhu et al. 2004, Volna et al. 2004)
Formation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as the sequence that leads to degranulation. However, the pathways that lead to cytokine production require the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors SOS and VAV that regulate GDP-GTP exchange of RAS. After its activation, RAS positively regulates the RAF-dependent pathway that leads to phosphorylation and, in part, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 (Gilfillan & Tkaczyk 2006)
Increase of intracellular calcium in mast cells is most crucial for mast cell degranulation. Elevation of intracellular calcium is achieved by activation of PLC-gamma. Mast cells express both PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 isoforms and activation of these enzymes leads to conversion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The production of IP3 leads to mobilization of intracellular Ca+2, which later results in a sustained Ca+2 flux response that is maintained by an influx of extracellular Ca+2. In addition to degranulation, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration also activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin dephosphorylates the nuclear factor for T cell activation (NFAT) which exposes nuclear-localization signal sequence triggering translocation of the dephosphorylated NFAT-CaN complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, NFAT regulates the transcription of several cytokine genes (Kambayashi et al. 2007, Hoth & Penner 1992, Ebinu et al. 2000, Siraganian et al)
The increase in intracellular Ca+2 in conjunction with DAG also activates PKC and RasGRP, which inturn contributes to cytokine production by mast cells (Kambayashi et al. 2007). Activation of the FCERI engages CARMA1, BCL10 and MALT1 complex to activate NF-kB through PKC-theta (Klemm et al. 2006, Chen et al. 2007). FCERI stimulation leads to phosphorylation, and degradation of IkB which allows the release and nuclear translocation of the NF-kB proteins. Activation of the NF-kB transcription factors then results in the synthesis of several cytokines. NF-kB activation by FCERI is critical for proinflammatory cytokine production during mast cell activation and is crucial for allergic inflammatory diseases (Klemm et al. 2006)
In naive T cells, CD28 costimulation enhances cell cycle entry, potently stimulates expression of both the mitogenic lymphokine interleukin-2 (IL-2) and its receptor, and stimulates the activation of an antiapoptotic program. CD28 engages with one or both members of the B7 receptor family, B7.1 and B7.2. Upon ligand binding the tyrosines and proline-rich motifs present in the cytoplasmic tail of CD28 are phosphorylated by Lck or Fyn. Upon phosphorylation CD28 recruits and induces phosphorylation and activation of a more restricted set of intracellular signaling components that, together with those mobilized by the TCR, contribute to convert membrane-based biochemical and biophysical changes into gene activation events. Proteins like PI3K, Vav-1, Tec and Itk kinases, AKT, and the Dok-1 adaptor have been identified as elements of the CD28 signaling pathway by biochemical or genetic approaches or both
CTLA4 is one of the best studied inhibitory receptors of the CD28 superfamily. CTLA4 inhibits Tcell activation by reducing IL2 production and IL2 expression, and by arresting T cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle. CTLA-4 expressed by a T cell subpopulation exerts a dominant control on the proliferation of other T cells, which limits autoreactivity. CTLA4 also blocks CD28 signals by competing for the ligands B71 and B72 in the limited space between T cells and antigenpresenting cells. Though the mechanism is obscure, CTLA4 may also propagate inhibitory signals that actively counter those produced by CD28. CTLA4 can also function in a ligand-independent manner.?CTLA-4 regulates the activation of pathogenic T cells by directly modulating T cell receptor signaling (i.e. TCR-zeta chain phosphorylation) as well as downstream biochemical signals (i.e. ERK activation). The cytoplasmic region of CTLA4 contains a tyrosine motif YVKM and a proline rich region. After TCR stimulation, it undergoes tyrosine phosphorylation by src kinases, inducing surface retention
Multiple EPHB receptors contribute directly to dendritic spine development and morphogenesis. These are more broadly involved in post-synaptic development through activation of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) and Rho family GTPases and their GEFs. Dendritic spine morphogenesis is a vital part of the process of synapse formation and maturation during CNS development. Dendritic spine morphogenesis is characterized by filopodia shortening followed by the formation of mature mushroom-shaped spines (Moeller et al. 2006). EPHBs control neuronal morphology and motility by modulation of the actin cytoskeleton. EPHBs control dendritic filopodia motility, enabling synapse formation. EPHBs exert these effects through interacting with the guanine exchange factors (GEFs) such as intersectin and kalirin. The intersectin-CDC42-WASP-actin and kalirin-RAC-PAK-actin pathways have been proposed to regulate the EPHB receptor mediated morphogenesis and maturation of dendritic spines in cultured hippocampal and cortical neurons (Irie & Yamaguchi 2002, Penzes et al. 2003). EPHBs are also involved in the regulation of dendritic spine morphology through FAK which activates the RHOA-ROCK-LIMK-1 pathway to suppress cofilin activity and inhibit cofilin-mediated dendritic spine remodeling (Shi et al. 2009)
EPH/Ephrin signaling is coupled to Rho family GTPases such as Rac, Rho and Cdc42 that connect bidirectional receptor-ligand interactions to changes in the actin cytoskeleton (Noren & Pasquale 2004, Groeger & Nobes 2007). RHOA regulates actin dynamics and is involved in EPHA-induced growth cone collapse. This is mediated by ephexins. Ephexin, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for Rho GTPases, interacts with the EPHA kinase domain and its subsequent activation differentially affects Rho GTPases, such that RHOA is activated, whereas Cdc42 and Rac1 are inhibited. Activation of RHOA, and inhibition of Cdc42 and Rac, shifts actin cytoskeleton to increased contraction and reduced expansion leading to growth-cone collapse (Shamah et al. 2001, Sahin et al. 2005). The activation of EPH receptors in growing neurons typically, but not always, leads to a growth cone collapse response and retraction from an ephrin-expressing substrate (Poliakov et al. 2004, Pasquale 2005). EPHA-mediated repulsive responses prevent axons from growing into regions of excessive ephrin-A concentration, such as the posterior end of the superior colliculus (Pasquale 2005)
Despite high-affinity multimeric interaction between EPHs and ephrins (EFNs), the cellular response to EPH-EFN engagement is usually repulsion between the two cells and signal termination. These repulsive responses induce an EPH receptor-expressing cell to retract from an ephrin-expressing cell after establishing initial contact. The repulsive responses mediated by EPH receptors in the growth cone at the leading edge of extending axons and in axonal collateral branches contribute to the formation of selective neuronal connections. It is unclear how high affinity trans-cellular interactions between EPHs and ephrins are broken to convert adhesion into repulsion. Two possible mechanisms have been proposed for the repulsion of EPH-EFN bearing cells: the first one involves regulated cleavage of ephrin ligands or EPH receptors by transmembrane proteases following cell-cell contact, while the second one is rapid endocytosis of whole EPH:EFN complexes during the retraction of the interacting cells or neuronal growth cones (Egea & Klein 2007, Janes et al. 2005). RAC also plays an essential role during growth cone collapse by promoting actin polymerization that drives membrane internalization by endocytosis (Marston et al. 2003)
Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-2 (Dectin-2) family of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) includes Dectin-2 (CLEC6A), blood dendritic antigen 2 (BDCA2/CLEC4C), macrophage C-type lectin (MCL/CLEC4D), Dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR/CLEC4A) and macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle/CLEC4E). These receptors possesses a single extracellular conserved C-type lectin domain (CTLD) with a short cytoplasmic tail that induces intracellular signalling indirectly by binding with the FCERG (High affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit gamma) except for DCIR that has a longer cytoplasmic tail with an integral inhibitory signalling motif (Graham & Brown. 2009, Kerschera et al. 2013). CLEC6A (Dectin-2) binds to high mannose containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by fungal hyphae, and CLEC4E (mincle) binds to alpha-mannaosyl PAMPs on fungal, mycobacterial and necrotic cell ligands. Both signaling pathways lead to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Similarities with Dectin-1 (CLC7A) signaling pathway suggests that both these CLRs couple SYK activation to NF-kB activation using a complex involving CARD9, BCL10 and MALT1 (Geijtenbeek & Gringhuis 2009)
CD209 (also called as DC-SIGN (DC-specific intracellular adhesion molecule-3-grabbing non-integrin)) is a type II transmembrane C-type lectin receptor preferentially expressed on dendritic cells (DCs). CD209 functions as a pattern recognition receptor (PRR) that recognises several microorganisms and pathogens, contributing to generation of pathogen-tailored immune responses (Gringhuis & Geijtenbeek 2010, den Dunnen et al. 2009, Svajger et al. 2010). CD209 interacts with different mannose-expressing pathogens such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis and HIV-1 (Gringhuis et al. 2007, Geijtenbeek et al. 2000a). It also acts as an adhesion receptor that interacts with ICAM2 (intracellular adhesion molecule-2) on endothelial cells and ICAM3 on T cells (Geijtenbeek et al. 2000b,c). \nCD209 functions not only as an independent PRR, but is also implicated in the modulation of Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling at the level of the transcription factor NF-kB (Gringhuis et al. 2009). CLEC7A (Dectin-1) and CD209 (DC-SIGN) signalling modulates Toll-like receptor (TLR) signalling through the kinase RAF1 that is independent of the SYK pathway but integrated with it at the level of NF-kB activation. The activation of RAF1 by CLEC7A or CD209 does not lead to activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1)/2 or Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase 1 (MEK1)/2 but leads to the phosphorylation and subsequent acetylation of RELA (p65). RELA phosphorylated on S276 not only positively regulates the activity of p65 through acetylation of p65, but also represses RELB activity by sequestering active RELB into inactive p65-RELB dimers that do not bind DNA (Gringhuis et al. 2007, Svajger et al. 2010, Jacque et al. 2005). RAF1-dependent signaling pathway is crucial in dectin-1 mediated immunity as it modulates both the canonical (promoting p65 phosphorylation and acetylation) and non-canonical (forming inactive p65-RELB dimers) NK-kB activation
BCR activation is highly regulated and coreceptors like CD22 (SIGLEC2) set a signalling threshold to prevent aberrant immune response and autoimmune disease (Cyster et al. 1997, Han et al. 2005). CD22 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of B cells during restricted stages of development. CD22 is a member of the receptors of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) family which binds specifically to the terminal sequence N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha(2-6) galactose (NeuAc-alpha(2-6)-Gal) present on many B-cell glycoproteins (Powell et al. 1993, Sgroi et al. 1993). CD22 has seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like extracellular domains and a cytoplasmic tail containing six tyrosines, three of which belong to the inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) sequences. Upon BCR cross-linking CD22 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinase Lyn, thereby recruiting and activating tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1 and inhibiting calcium signalling
Three D-type cyclins are essential for progression from G1 to S-phase. These D cyclins bind to and activate both CDK4 and CDK6. The formation of all possible complexes between the D-type cyclins and CDK4/6 is promoted by the proteins, p21(CIP1/WAF1) and p27(KIP1). The cyclin-dependent kinases are then activated due to phosphorylation by CAK. The cyclin dependent kinases phosphorylate the RB1 protein and RB1-related proteins p107 (RBL1) and p130 (RBL2). Phosphorylation of RB1 leads to release of activating E2F transcription factors (E2F1, E2F2 and E2F3). After repressor E2Fs (E2F4 and E2F5) dissociate from phosphorylated RBL1 and RBL2, activating E2Fs bind to E2F promoter sites, stimulating transcription of cell cycle genes, which then results in proper G1/S transition. The binding and sequestration of p27Kip may also contribute to the activation of CDK2 cyclin E/CDK2 cyclin A complexes at the G1/S transition (Yew et al., 2001)
Initiation of platelet adhesion is the first step in the formation of the platelet plug. Circulating platelets are arrested and subsequently activated by exposed collagen and vWF. It is not entirely clear which type of collagen is responsible for adhesion and activation; collagen types I and III are abundant in vascular epithelia but several other types incluing IV are present (Farndale 2006). Several collagen binding proteins are expressed on platelets, including integrin alpha2 beta1, GPVI, and GPIV. Integrin alpha2 beta1, known on leukocytes as VLA-2, is the major platelet collagen receptor (Kunicki et al. 1988). It requires Mg2+ to interact with collagen and may require initiation mediated by the activation of integrin alphaIIb beta3 (van de Walle 2007). Binding occurs via the alpha2 subunit I domain to a collagen motif with the sequence Gly-Phe-Hyp-Gly-Glu-Arg (Emsley 2000). Binding of collagen to alpha2 beta1 generates intracellular signals that contribute to platelet activation. These facilitate the engagement of the lower-affinity collagen receptor, GPVI (Keely 1996), the key receptor involved in collagen-induced platelet activation. The GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with a dimer of Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FceRI gamma). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI:FceRIgamma complex in platelets and initiate platelet activation through phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in FceRI gamma, leading to binding and activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk. Downstream of Syk, a series of adapter molecules and effectors lead to platelet activation. vWF protein is a polymeric structure of variable size. It is secreted in two directions, by the endothelium basolaterally and into the bloodstream. Shear-induced aggregation is achieved when vWF binds via its A1 domain to GPIb (part of GPIb-IX-V), and via its A3 domain mediating collagen binding to the subendothelium. The interaction between vWF and GPIb is regulated by shear force; an increase in the shear stress results in a corresponding increase in the affinity of vWF for GPIb
Cbl is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that negatively regulates signaling pathways by targeting proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (Rao et al. 2002). Cbl negatively regulates PI3K via this mechanism (Dufour et al. 2008). The binding of Cbl to the p85 subunit of PI3K is mediated at least in part by tyrosine phosphorylation at Y731 (Dufour et al. 2008). Fyn and the related kinases Hck and Lyn are known to be associated with Cbl (Anderson et al. 1997, Hunter et al. 1999). Fyn is proven capable of Cbl Y731 phosphorylation (Hunter et al. 1999).The association of Fyn and Cbl has been described as constitutive (Hunter et al. 1999). CBL further associates with the p85 subunit of PI3K (Hartley et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 1997, Hunter et al. 1997), this also described as constitutive and mediated by the SH3 domain of p85. Binding of the SH2 domain of p85 to a specific phosphorylation site in Cbl is postulated to explain the the increase in Cbl/p85 association seen in activated cells (Panchamoorthy et al 1996) which negatively regulates PI3K activity (Fang et al. 2001). The negative effect of increased Cbl-PI3K interaction is mediated by Y731 of Cbl. Cbl binding increases PI3K ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (Dufour et al. 2008).Cbl is constitutively associated with Grb in resting hematopoietic cells (Anderson et al. 1997, Odai et al. 1995, Park et al. 1998, Panchamoorthy et al. 1996). Both the SH2 and SH3 domains of Grb2 are involved. Cbl has 2 distinct C-terminal domains, proximal and distal. The proximal domain binds Grb2 in resting and stimulated cells, and in stimulated cells also binds Shc. The distal domain binds the adaptor protein CRKL. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl in response to IL-3 releases the SH3 domain of Grb2 which then is free to bind other molecules (Park et al. 1998). Cbl is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to many cytokines including IL-3, IL-2 (Gesbert et al. 1998) and IL-4 (Ueno et al. 1998)
Growth hormone (Somatotropin or GH) is a key factor in determining lean body mass, stimulating the growth and metabolism of muscle, bone and cartilage cells, while reducing body fat. It has many other roles; it acts to regulate cell growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and reorganisation of the cytoskeleton, affecting diverse processes such as cardiac function, immune function, brain function, and aging. GH also has insulin-like effects such as stimulating amino acid transport, protein synthesis, glucose transport, and lipogenesis. The growth hormone receptor (GHR) is a a member of the cytokine receptor family. When the dimeric receptor binds GH it undergoes a conformational change which leads to phosphorylation of key tyrosine residues in its cytoplasmic domains and activation of associated tyrosine kinase JAK2. This leads to recruitment of signaling molecules such as STAT5 and Src family kinases such as Lyn leading to ERK activation. The signal is attenuated by association of Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling (SOCS) proteins and SHP phosphatases which bind to or dephosphorylate specific phosphorylated tyrosines on GHR/JAK. The availability of GHR on the cell surface is regulated by at least two processes; internalization and cleavage from the suface by metalloproteases
Mature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, Fu et al. 1975, Kunkel et al. 1975, Van Noesal et al. 1992, Sanchez et al. 1993, reviewed in Brezski and Monroe 2008). Binding of antigen to the immunoglobulin activates phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta by Src family tyrosine kinases, including LYN, FYN, and BLK (Nel et al. 1984, Yamanashi et al. 1991, Flaswinkel and Reth 1994, Saouaf et al. 1994, Hata et al. 1994, Saouaf et al. 1995, reviewed in Gauld and Cambier 2004, reviewed in Harwood and Batista 2010). The protein kinase SYK may also be involved in phosphorylating the ITAMs.The protein kinase SYK binds the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-activated motifs (ITAMs) on the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) (Wienands et al. 1995, Rowley et al. 1995, Tsang et al. 2008). The binding causes the activation and autophosphorylation of SYK (Law et al. 1994, Irish et al. 2006, Baldock et al. 2008, Tsang et al. 2008, reviewed in Bradshaw 2010).Activated SYK and other kinases phosphorylate BLNK (SLP-65, BASH) and BCAP. LYN and FYN phosphorylate CD19. Phosphorylated BLNK, BCAP, and CD19 serve as scaffolds which recruit effectors to the plasma membrane and assemble large complexes, the signalosomes. BCAP and CD19 recruit phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). BLNK recruits phospholipase C gamma (predominantly PLC-gamma2 in B cells, Coggeshall et al. 1992), NCK, BAM32, BTK, VAV1, and SHC. The effectors are phosphorylated by SYK and other kinases.Phosphorylated BCAP recruits PI3K, which is phosphorylated by a SYK-dependent mechanism (Kuwahara et al. 1996) and produces phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Phosphorylated CD19 likewise recruits PIP3K. PIP3 recruits BAM32 (Marshall et al. 2000) and BTK (de Weers et al. 1994, Baba et al. 2001) to the plasma membrane via their PH domains. PIP3 also recruits and activates PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 (Bae et al. 1998). BTK binds phosphorylated BLNK via its SH2 domain (Baba et al. 2001). BTK phosphorylates PLC-gamma2 (Rodriguez et al. 2001), which activates phospholipase activity (Carter et al. 1991, Roifman and Wang 1992, Kim et al. 2004, Sekiya et al. 2004). Phosphorylated BLNK recruits PLC-gamma, VAV, GRB2, and NCK (Fu and Chan 1997, Fu et al. 1998, Chiu et al. 2002).PLC-gamma hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to yield inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (Carter et al. 1991, Kim et al. 2004). IP3 binds receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum and causes release of Ca2+ ions from the ER into the cytosol. The depletion of calcium from the ER in turn activates STIM1 to interact with ORAI and TRPC1 channels (and possibly other TRP channels) in the plasma membrane, resulting in an influx of extracellular calcium ions (Mori et al. 2002, Muik et al. 2008, Luik et al. 2008, Park et al. 2009)