241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Cytoplasm Note=Isoform 2 shows a cytoplasmic perinuclear localization in amyoblastic cell line in resting and insulin-stimulated cells
Function (UniProt annotation)
May act as a GTPase-activating protein for RAB2A, RAB8A,RAB10 and RAB14 Isoform 2 promotes insulin-induced glucosetransporter SLC2A4/GLUT4 translocation at the plasma membrane,thus increasing glucose uptake
The thyroid hormones (THs) are important regulators of growth, development and metabolism. The action of TH is mainly mediated by T3 (3,5,3'-triiodo-L-thyronine). Thyroid hormones, L-thyroxine (T4) and T3 enter the cell through transporter proteins. Although the major form of TH in the blood is T4, it is converted to the more active hormone T3 within cells. T3 binds to nuclear thyroid hormone receptors (TRs), which functions as a ligand-dependent transcription factor and controls the expression of target genes (genomic action). Nongenomic mechanisms of action is initiated at the integrin receptor. The plasma membrane alpha(v)beta(3)-integrin has distinct binding sites for T3 and T4. One binding site binds only T3 and activates the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway. The other binding site binds both T3 and T4 and activates the ERK1/2 MAP kinase pathway.
Insulin resistance is a condition where cells become resistant to the effects of insulin. It is often found in people with health disorders, including obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and cardiovascular diseases. In this diagram multiple mechanisms underlying insulin resistance are shown: (a) increased phosphorylation of IRS (insulin receptor substrate) protein through serine/threonine kinases, such as JNK1 and IKKB, and protein kinase C, (b) increased IRS-1 proteasome degradation via mTOR signaling pathway, (c) decreased activation of signaling molecules including PI3K and AKT, (d) increase in activity of phosphatases including PTPs, PTEN, and PP2A. Regulatory actions such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, accumulation of intracellular lipid derivatives (diacylglycrol and ceramides), and inflammation (via IL-6 and TNFA) contribute to these mechanisms. Consequently, insulin resistance causes reduced GLUT4 translocation, resulting in glucose takeup and glycogen synthesis in skeletal muscle as well as increased hepatic gluconeogenesis and decreased glycogen synthesis in liver. At the bottom of the diagram, interplay between O-GlcNAcylation and serine/threonine phosphorylation is shown. Studies suggested that elevated O-GlcNAc level was correlated to high glucose-induced insulin resistance. Donor UDP-GlcNAc is induced through hexosamine biosynthesis pathway and added to proteins by O-GlcNAc transferase. Elevation of O-GlcNAc modification alters phosphorylation and function of key insulin signaling proteins including IRS-1, PI3K, PDK1, Akt and other transcription factor and cofactors, resulting in the attenuation of insulin signaling cascade.
In adipocytes and myocytes insulin signaling causes intracellular vesicles carrying the GLUT4 (SLC2A4) glucose transporter to translocate to the plasma membrane, allowing the cells to take up glucose from the bloodstream (reviewed in Zaid et al. 2008, Leney and Tavare 2009, Bogan and Kandror 2010, Foley et al. 2011, Hoffman and Elmendorf 2011, Kandror and Pilch 2011, Jaldin-Fincati et al. 2017). In myocytes muscle contraction alone can also cause translocation of GLUT4.Though the entire pathway leading to GLUT4 translocation has not been elucidated, several steps are known. Insulin activates the kinases AKT1 and AKT2. Muscle contraction activates the kinase AMPK-alpha2 and possibly also AKT. AKT2 and, to a lesser extent, AKT1 phosphorylate the RAB GTPase activators TBC1D1 and TBC1D4, causing them to bind 14-3-3 proteins and lose GTPase activation activity. As a result RAB proteins (probably RAB8A, RAB10, RAB14 and possibly RAB13) accumulate GTP. The connection between RAB:GTP and vesicle translocation is unknown but may involve recruitment and activation of myosins.Myosins 1C, 2A, 2B, 5A, 5B have all been shown to play a role in translocating GLUT4 vesicles near the periphery of the cell. Following docking at the plasma membrane the vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane in a process that depends on interaction between VAMP2 on the vesicle and SNAP23 and SYNTAXIN-4 at the plasma membrane