241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Non-receptor tyrosine kinase which mediates signaltransduction downstream of a variety of transmembrane receptorsincluding classical immunoreceptors like the B-cell receptor(BCR) Regulates several biological processes including innate andadaptive immunity, cell adhesion, osteoclast maturation, plateletactivation and vascular development Assembles into signalingcomplexes with activated receptors at the plasma membrane viainteraction between its SH2 domains and the receptor tyrosine-phosphorylated ITAM domains The association with the receptor canalso be indirect and mediated by adapter proteins containing ITAMor partial hemITAM domains The phosphorylation of the ITAMdomains is generally mediated by SRC subfamily kinases uponengagement of the receptor More rarely signal transduction viaSYK could be ITAM-independent Direct downstream effectorsphosphorylated by SYK include VAV1, PLCG1, PI-3-kinase, LCP2 andBLNK Initially identified as essential in B-cell receptor (BCR)signaling, it is necessary for the maturation of B-cells mostprobably at the pro-B to pre-B transition Activated upon BCRengagement, it phosphorylates and activates BLNK an adapterlinking the activated BCR to downstream signaling adapters andeffectors It also phosphorylates and activates PLCG1 and the PKCsignaling pathway It also phosphorylates BTK and regulates itsactivity in B-cell antigen receptor (BCR)-coupled signaling Inaddition to its function downstream of BCR plays also a role in T-cell receptor signaling Plays also a crucial role in the innateimmune response to fungal, bacterial and viral pathogens It isfor instance activated by the membrane lectin CLEC7A Uponstimulation by fungal proteins, CLEC7A together with SYK activatesimmune cells inducing the production of ROS Also activates theinflammasome and NF-kappa-B-mediated transcription of chemokinesand cytokines in presence of pathogens Regulates neutrophildegranulation and phagocytosis through activation of the MAPKsignaling cascade Also mediates the activation of dendritic cellsby cell necrosis stimuli Also involved in mast cells activationInvolved in interleukin-3/IL3-mediated signaling pathway inbasophils (By similarity) Also functions downstream of receptorsmediating cell adhesion Relays for instance, integrin-mediatedneutrophils and macrophages activation and P-selectinreceptor/SELPG-mediated recruitment of leukocytes to inflammatoryloci Plays also a role in non-immune processes It is forinstance involved in vascular development where it may regulateblood and lymphatic vascular separation It is also required forosteoclast development and function Functions in the activationof platelets by collagen, mediating PLCG2 phosphorylation andactivation May be coupled to the collagen receptor by the ITAMdomain-containing FCER1G Also activated by the membrane lectinCLEC1B that is required for activation of platelets byPDPN/podoplanin Involved in platelet adhesion being activated byITGB3 engaged by fibrinogen Together with CEACAM20, enhancesproduction of the cytokine CXCL8/IL-8 via the NFKB pathway and maythus have a role in the intestinal immune response (Bysimilarity)
Catalytic Activity (UniProt annotation)
ATP + a [protein]-L-tyrosine = ADP + a[protein]-L-tyrosine phosphate
Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) is the generic name of a family of transcription factors that function as dimers and regulate genes involved in immunity, inflammation and cell survival. There are several pathways leading to NF-kappa B-activation. The canonical pathway is induced by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 (IL-1) or byproducts of bacterial and viral infections. This pathway relies on IKK- mediated IkappaB-alpha phosphorylation on Ser32 and 36, leading to its degradation, which allows the p50/p65 NF-kappa B dimer to enter the nucleus and activate gene transcription. Atypical pathways are IKK-independent and rely on phosphorylation of IkappaB-alpha on Tyr42 or on Ser residues in IkappaB-alpha PEST domain. The non-canonical pathway is triggered by particular members of the TNFR superfamily, such as lymphotoxin-beta (LT-beta) or BAFF. It involves NIK and IKK-alpha-mediated p100 phosphorylation and processing to p52, resulting in nuclear translocation of p52/RelB heterodimers.
Phospholipase D (PLD) is an essential enzyme responsible for the production of the lipid second messenger phosphatidic acid (PA), which is involved in fundamental cellular processes, including membrane trafficking, actin cytoskeleton remodeling, cell proliferation and cell survival. PLD activity can be stimulated by a large number of cell surface receptors and is elaborately regulated by intracellular factors, including protein kinase C isoforms, small GTPases of the ARF, Rho and Ras families and the phosphoinositide, phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2). The PLD-produced PA activates signaling proteins and acts as a node within the membrane to which signaling proteins translocate. Several signaling proteins, including Raf-1 and mTOR, directly bind PA to mediate translocation or activation, respectively.
The phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, translation, proliferation, growth, and survival. The binding of growth factors to their receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) or G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) stimulates class Ia and Ib PI3K isoforms, respectively. PI3K catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) at the cell membrane. PIP3 in turn serves as a second messenger that helps to activate Akt. Once active, Akt can control key cellular processes by phosphorylating substrates involved in apoptosis, protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell cycle.
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast.
Platelets play a key and beneficial role for primary hemostasis on the disruption of the integrity of vessel wall. Platelet adhesion and activation at sites of vascular wall injury is initiated by adhesion to adhesive macromolecules, such as collagen and von Willebrand factor (vWF), or by soluble platelet agonists, such as ADP, thrombin, and thromboxane A2. Different receptors are stimulated by various agonists, almost converging in increasing intracellular Ca2+ concentration that stimulate platelet shape change and granule secretion and ultimately induce the inside-outsignaling process leading to activation of the ligand-binding function of integrin alpha IIb beta 3. Binding of alpha IIb beta 3 to its ligands, mainly fibrinogen, mediates platelet adhesion and aggregation and triggers outside-insignaling, resulting in platelet spreading, additional granule secretion, stabilization of platelet adhesion and aggregation, and clot retraction.
C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) are a large superfamily of proteins characterized by the presence of one or more C-type lectin-like domains (CTLDs). CLRs function as pattern-recognition receptors (PRRs) for pathogen-derived ligands in dendric cells, macrophages, neutrophils, etc., such as Dectin-1 and Dectin-2 for recognition of fungi-derived B-glucan and high mannose-type carbohydrates. Upon ligand binding, CLRs stimulate intracellular signaling cascades that induce the production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, consequently triggering innate and adaptive immunity to pathogens.
Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system that are involved in early defenses against both allogeneic (nonself) cells and autologous cells undergoing various forms of stress, such as infection with viruses, bacteria, or parasites or malignant transformation. Although NK cells do not express classical antigen receptors of the immunoglobulin gene family, such as the antibodies produced by B cells or the T cell receptor expressed by T cells, they are equipped with various receptors whose engagement allows them to discriminate between target and nontarget cells. Activating receptors bind ligands on the target cell surface and trigger NK cell activation and target cell lysis. However Inhibitory receptors recognize MHC class I molecules (HLA) and inhibit killing by NK cells by overruling the actions of the activating receptors. This inhibitory signal is lost when the target cells do not express MHC class I and perhaps also in cells infected with virus, which might inhibit MHC class I exprssion or alter its conformation. The mechanism of NK cell killing is the same as that used by the cytotoxic T cells generated in an adaptive immune response; cytotoxic granules are released onto the surface of the bound target cell, and the effector proteins they contain penetrate the cell membrane and induce programmed cell death.
B cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor (BCR) is an integral membrane protein complex that is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, two Ig light chains and two heterodimers of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta. After BCR ligation by antigen, three main protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) -the SRC-family kinase LYN, SYK and the TEC-family kinase BTK- are activated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma 2) are important downstream effectors of BCR signalling. This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and Ig production as well as other processes.
Fc epsilon RI-mediated signaling pathways in mast cells are initiated by the interaction of antigen (Ag) with IgE bound to the extracellular domain of the alpha chain of Fc epsilon RI. The activation pathways are regulated both positively and negatively by the interactions of numerous signaling molecules. Mast cells that are thus activated release preformed granules which contain biogenic amines (especially histamines) and proteoglycans (especially heparin). The activation of phospholipase A2 causes the release of membrane lipids followed by development of lipid mediators such as leukotrienes (LTC4, LTD4 and LTE4) and prostaglandins (especially PDG2). There is also secretion of cytokines, the most important of which are TNF-alpha, IL-4 and IL-5. These mediators and cytokines contribute to inflammatory responses.
Phagocytosis plays an essential role in host-defense mechanisms through the uptake and destruction of infectious pathogens. Specialized cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, and monocytes take part in this process in higher organisms. After opsonization with antibodies (IgG), foreign extracellular materials are recognized by Fc gamma receptors. Cross-linking of Fc gamma receptors initiates a variety of signals mediated by tyrosine phosphorylation of multiple proteins, which lead through the actin cytoskeleton rearrangements and membrane remodeling to the formation of phagosomes. Nascent phagosomes undergo a process of maturation that involves fusion with lysosomes. The acquisition of lysosomal proteases and release of reactive oxygen species are crucial for digestion of engulfed materials in phagosomes.
Tuberculosis, or TB, is an infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis. One third of the world's population is thought to be infected with TB. About 90% of those infected result in latent infections, and about 10% of latent infections develop active diseases when their immune system is impaired due to the age, other diseases such as AIDS or exposure to immunosuppressive drugs. TB is transmitted through the air and primarily attacks the lungs, then it can spread by the circulatory system to other parts of body. Once TB bacilli have entered the host by the respiratory route and infected macrophages in the lungs, they interfere with phagosomal maturation, antigen presentation, apoptosis and host immune system to establish persistent or latent infection.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV), also known as human herpesvirus 8 (HHV-8), is the most recently identified human tumor virus, and is associated with the pathogenesis of Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and Multicentric Castleman's disease (MCD). Like all other herpesviruses, KSHV displays two modes of life cycle, latency and lytic replication, which are characterized by the patterns of viral gene expression. Genes expressed in latency (LANA, v-cyclin, v-FLIP, Kaposins A, B and C and viral miRNAs) are mainly thought to facilitate the establishment of life long latency in its host and survival against the host innate, and adaptive immune surveillance mechanisms. Among the viral proteins shown to be expressed during lytic replication are potent signaling molecules such as vGPCR, vIL6, vIRFs, vCCLs, K1 and K15, which have been implicated experimentally in the angiogenic and inflammatory phenotype observed in KS lesions. Several of these latent viral and lytic proteins are known to transform host cells, linking KSHV with the development of severe human malignancies.
Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a gamma-herpes virus that widely infects human populations predominantly at an early age but remains mostly asymptomatic. EBV has been linked to a wide spectrum of human malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma and other hematologic cancers, like Hodgkin's lymphoma, Burkitt's lymphoma (BL), B-cell immunoblastic lymphoma in HIV patients, and posttransplant-associated lymphoproliferative diseases. EBV has the unique ability to establish life-long latent infection in primary human B lymphocytes. During latent infection, EBV expresses a small subset of genes, including 6 nuclear antigens (EBNA-1, -2, -3A, -3B, -3C, and -LP), 3 latent membrane proteins (LMP-1, -2A, and -2B), 2 small noncoding RNAs (EBER-1 and 2). On the basis of these latent gene expression, three different latency patterns associated with the types of cancers are recognized.
There is a strong association between viruses and the development of human malignancies. We now know that at least six human viruses, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), human papilloma virus (HPV), human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV-1) and Kaposi's associated sarcoma virus (KSHV) contribute to 10-15% of the cancers worldwide. Via expression of many potent oncoproteins, these tumor viruses promote an aberrant cell-proliferation via modulating cellular cell-signaling pathways and escape from cellular defense system such as blocking apoptosis. Human tumor virus oncoproteins can also disrupt pathways that are necessary for the maintenance of the integrity of host cellular genome. Viruses that encode such activities can contribute to initiation as well as progression of human cancers.
The GPVI receptor is a complex of the GPVI protein with Fc epsilon R1 gamma (FcR). The Src family kinases Fyn and Lyn constitutively associate with the GPVI-FcR complex in platelets and initiate platelet activation through phosphorylation of the immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) in the FcR gamma chain, leading to binding and activation of the tyrosine kinase Syk. Downstream of Syk, a series of adapter molecules and effectors lead to platelet activation. The GPVI receptor signaling cascade is similar to that of T- and B-cell immune receptors, involving the formation of a signalosome composed of adapter and effector proteins. At the core of the T-cell receptor signalosome is the transmembrane adapter LAT and two cytosolic adapters SLP-76 and Gads. While LAT is essential for signalling to PLCgamma1 downstream of the T-cell receptor, the absence of LAT in platelets only impairs the activation of PLCgamma2, the response to collagen and GPVI receptor ligands remains sufficient to elicit a full aggregation response. In contrast, GPVI signalling is almost entirely abolished in the absence of SLP-76
Cross-linking of FCGRs with IgG coated immune complexes results in tyrosine phosphorylation of the immuno tyrosine activation motif (ITAMs) of the rececptor by membrane-bound tyrosine kinases of the SRC family. The phosphorylated ITAM tyrosines serve as docking sites for Src homology 2 (SH2) domain-containing SYK kinase. Recruitment and activation of SYK is critical for FCGR-mediated signaling in phagocytosis, but the exact role of SYK in this process is unclear. Activated SYK then transmits downstream signals leading to actin polymerization and particle internalization
The actin cytoskeleton is fundamental for phagocytosis and members of the Rho family GTPases RAC and CDC42 are involved in actin cytoskeletal regulation leading to pseudopod extension. Active RAC and CDC42 exert their action through the members of WASP family proteins (WASP/N-WASP/WAVE) and ARP2/3 complex. Actin filaments move from the bottom toward the top of the phagocytic cup during pseudopod extension
Phospholipases play an integral role in phagocytosis by generating essential second messengers. An early step in phagocytic signaling is the association of PIP2 and IP3 with the phagocytic cup. These are formed by the activity of phosphoinositol kinases and phospholipases. PI3K is has been shown to accumulate at phagocytic cups and converts PI (4,5)P2 to PI (3,4,5)P3. These phosphoinositides are capable of binding and increasing the activity of proteins that regulate the actin cytoskeleton. Phospholipases are lipid modifying enzymes that produce lipid mediators such as diacylglycerol (DAG), arachidonic acid (AA) and IP3. Phopsholipases PLA, PLC and PLD have been shown to be involved in antibody (IgG) mediated phagocytosis. The PLC product IP3 stimulates release of calcium from the endoplasmic reticulum. This Ca+2 concentration increase is greatest in the cytoplasm surrounding the phagocytic cup. Calcium is involved in the various stages of phagosome formation, including phagocytic ingestion and phagosome maturation
In response to receptor ligation, the tyrosine residues in DAP12's immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM) are phosphorylated by Src family kinases. These phosphotyrosines form the docking site for the protein tyrosine kinase SYK in myeloid cells and SYK and ZAP70 in NK cells. DAP12-bound SYK autophosphorylates and phosphorylates the scaffolding molecule LAT, recruiting the proximal signaling molecules phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase (PI3K), phospholipase-C gamma (PLC-gamma), GADS (GRB2-related adapter downstream of SHC), SLP76 (SH2 domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa), GRB2:SOS (Growth factor receptor-bound protein 2:Son of sevenless homolog 1) and VAV. All of these intermediate signalling molecules result in the recruitment and activation of kinases AKT, CBL (Casitas B-lineage lymphoma) and ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase), and rearrangement of the actin cytoskeleton (actin polymerization) finally leading to cellular activation. PLC-gamma generates the secondary messengers diacylglycerol (DAG) and inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3), leading to activation of protein kinase C (PKC) and calcium mobilization, respectively (Turnbull & Colonna 2007, Klesney-Tait et al. 2006)
Mast cells (MC) are distributed in tissues throughout the human body and have long been recognized as key cells of type I hypersensitivity reactions. They also play important roles in inflammatory and immediate allergic reactions. Activation through FCERI-bound antigen-specific IgE causes release of potent inflammatory mediators, such as histamine, proteases, chemotactic factors, cytokines and metabolites of arachidonic acid that act on the vasculature, smooth muscle, connective tissue, mucous glands and inflammatory cells (Borish & Joseph 1992, Amin 2012, Metcalfe et al. 1993). FCERI is a multimeric cell-surface receptor that binds the Fc fragment of IgE with high affinity. On mast cells and basophils FCERI exists as a tetrameric complex consisting of one alpha-chain, one beta-chain, and two disulfide-bonded gamma-chains, and on dendritic cells, Langerhans cells, macrophages, and eosinophils it exists as a trimeric complex with one alpha-chain and two disulfide-bonded gamma-chains (Wu 2011, Kraft & Kinet 2007). FCERI signaling in mast cells includes a network of signaling molecules and adaptor proteins. These molecules coordinate ultimately leading to effects on degranulation, eicosanoid production, and cytokine and chemokine production and cell migration and adhesion, growth and survival.The first step in FCERI signaling is the phosphorylation of the tyrosine residues in the ITAM of both the beta and the gamma subunits of the FCERI by LYN, which is bound to the FCERI beta-chain. The phosphorylated ITAM then recruits the protein tyrosine kinase SYK (spleen tyrosine kinase) which then phosphorylates the adaptor protein LAT. Phosphorylated LAT (linker for activation of T cells) acts as a scaffolding protein and recruits other cytosolic adaptor molecules GRB2 (growth-factor-receptor-bound protein 2), GADS (GRB2-related adaptor protein), SHC (SRC homology 2 (SH2)-domain-containing transforming protein C) and SLP76 (SH2-domain-containing leukocyte protein of 76 kDa), as well as the exchange factors and adaptor molecules VAV and SOS (son of sevenless homologue), and the signalling enzyme phospholipase C gamma1 (PLC-gamma1). Tyrosoine phosphorylation of enzymes and adaptors, including VAV, SHC GRB2 and SOS stimulate small GTPases such as RAC, RAS and RAF. These pathways lead to activation of the ERK, JNK and p38 MAP kinases, histamine release and cytokine production. FCERI activation also triggers the phosphorylation of PLC-gamma which upon membrane localisation hydrolyse PIP2 to form IP3 and 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) - second messengers that release Ca2+ from internal stores and activate PKC, respectively. Degranulation or histamine release follows the activation of PLC-gamma and protein kinase C (PKC) and the increased mobilization of calcium (Ca2+). Receptor aggregation also results in the phosphorylation of adaptor protein NTAL/LAT2 which then recruits GAB2. PI3K associates with phosphorylated GAB2 and catalyses the formation of PIP3 in the membrane, which attracts many PH domain proteins like BTK, PLC-gamma, AKT and PDK. PI3K mediated activation of AKT then regulate the mast cell proliferation, development and survival (Gu et al. 2001)
The lipid raft resident adaptor molecules LAT1 and Non-T cell activation linker (NTAL), also known as linker for activation of B cells (LAB)/LAT2 are known participants in the regulation of mast cell calcium responses. Both LAT and NTAL are expressed and phosphorylated following engagement of FCERI on mast cells. NTAL is functionally and topographically different from LAT. There is a considerable debate on the role of NTAL in mast cell. Depending on the circumstances, NTAL appears to have a dual role as positive and negative regulator of MC responses elicited via FCERI. Studies conducted in bone marrow-derived mast cells (BMMCs) of mice lacking NTAL displayed enhanced FCERI-mediated tyrosine phosphorylation of several substrates, calcium response, degranulation, and cytokine production. This indicated that NTAL negatively regulates FCERI-mediated degranulation. However, in mice lacking both LAT and NTAL showed severe block in FCERI-mediated signaling than BMMCs deficient in LAT alone, suggesting that NTAL also shares a redundant function with LAT to play a positive role (Draberova et al. 2007, Orr & McVicar. 2011, Zhu et al. 2004, Volna et al. 2004)
Formation of the LAT signaling complex leads to activation of MAPK and production of cytokines. The sequence of events that leads from LAT to cytokine production has not been as clearly defined as the sequence that leads to degranulation. However, the pathways that lead to cytokine production require the guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors SOS and VAV that regulate GDP-GTP exchange of RAS. After its activation, RAS positively regulates the RAF-dependent pathway that leads to phosphorylation and, in part, activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) and ERK2 (Gilfillan & Tkaczyk 2006)
Increase of intracellular calcium in mast cells is most crucial for mast cell degranulation. Elevation of intracellular calcium is achieved by activation of PLC-gamma. Mast cells express both PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 isoforms and activation of these enzymes leads to conversion of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) into inositol triphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (DAG). The production of IP3 leads to mobilization of intracellular Ca+2, which later results in a sustained Ca+2 flux response that is maintained by an influx of extracellular Ca+2. In addition to degranulation, an increase in intracellular calcium concentration also activates the Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent serine phosphatase calcineurin. Calcineurin dephosphorylates the nuclear factor for T cell activation (NFAT) which exposes nuclear-localization signal sequence triggering translocation of the dephosphorylated NFAT-CaN complex to the nucleus. Once in the nucleus, NFAT regulates the transcription of several cytokine genes (Kambayashi et al. 2007, Hoth & Penner 1992, Ebinu et al. 2000, Siraganian et al)
At the sites of vascular injury bioactive molecules such as thrombin, ADP, collagen, fibrinogen and thrombospondin are generated, secreted or exposed. These stimuli activate platelets, converting the major platelet integrin alphaIIbbeta3 from a resting state to an active conformation, in a process termed integrin priming or 'inside-out signalling'. Integrin activation refers to the change required to enhance ligand-binding activity. The activated alphaIIbbeta3 interacts with the fibrinogen and links platelets together in an aggregate to form a platelet plug. AlphaIIbbeta3 bound to fibrin generates more intracellular signals (outside-in signalling), causing further platelet activation and platelet-plug retraction. In the resting state the alpha and beta tails are close together. This interaction keeps the membrane proximal regions in a bent conformation that maintains alphaIIbbeta3 in a low affinity state. Integrin alphaIIbbeta3 is released from its inactive state by interaction with the protein talin. Talin interacts with the beta3 cytoplasmic domain and disrupts the salt bridge between the alpha and beta chains. This separation in the cytoplasmic regions triggers the conformational change in the extracellular domain that increases its affinity to fibrinogen. Much of talin exists in an inactive cytosolic pool, and the Rap1 interacting adaptor molecule (RIAM) is implicated in talin activation and translocation to beta3 integrin cytoplasmic domain
CLEC7A (also known as Dectin-1) is a pattern-recognition receptor (PRR) expressed by myeloid cells (macrophages, dendritic cells and neutrophils) that detects pathogens by binding to beta-1,3-glucans in fungal cell walls and triggers direct innate immune responses to fungal and bacterial infections. CLEC7A belongs to thetype-II C-type lectin receptor (CLR) family that can mediate its own intracellular signaling. Upon binding particulate beta-1,3-glucans, CLEC7A mediates intracellular signalling through its cytoplasmic immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motif (ITAM)-like motif (Brown 2006). CLEC7A signaling can induce the production of various cytokines and chemokines, including tumour-necrosis factor (TNF), CXC-chemokine ligand 2 (CXCL2, also known as MIP2), interleukin-1beta (IL-1b), IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12 (Brown et al. 2003), it also triggers phagocytosis and stimulates the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), thus contributing to microbial killing (Gantner et al. 2003, Herre et al. 2004, Underhill et al. 2005, Goodridge at al. 2011, Reid et al. 2009). These cellular responses mediated by CLEC7A rely on both Syk-dependent and Syk-independent signaling cascades. The pathways leading to the Syk-dependent activation of NF-kB can be categorised into both canonical and non-canonical routes (Gringhuis et al. 2009). Activation of the canonical NF-kB pathway is essential for innate immunity, whereas activation of the non-canonical pathway is involved in lymphoid organ development and adaptive immunity (Plato et al. 2013)
Dendritic cell-associated C-type lectin-2 (Dectin-2) family of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs) includes Dectin-2 (CLEC6A), blood dendritic antigen 2 (BDCA2/CLEC4C), macrophage C-type lectin (MCL/CLEC4D), Dendritic cell immunoreceptor (DCIR/CLEC4A) and macrophage inducible C-type lectin (Mincle/CLEC4E). These receptors possesses a single extracellular conserved C-type lectin domain (CTLD) with a short cytoplasmic tail that induces intracellular signalling indirectly by binding with the FCERG (High affinity immunoglobulin epsilon receptor subunit gamma) except for DCIR that has a longer cytoplasmic tail with an integral inhibitory signalling motif (Graham & Brown. 2009, Kerschera et al. 2013). CLEC6A (Dectin-2) binds to high mannose containing pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) expressed by fungal hyphae, and CLEC4E (mincle) binds to alpha-mannaosyl PAMPs on fungal, mycobacterial and necrotic cell ligands. Both signaling pathways lead to Toll-like receptor (TLR)-independent production of cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) and interleukin 6 (IL6). Similarities with Dectin-1 (CLC7A) signaling pathway suggests that both these CLRs couple SYK activation to NF-kB activation using a complex involving CARD9, BCL10 and MALT1 (Geijtenbeek & Gringhuis 2009)
Interleukin-2 (IL-2) is a cytokine that is produced by T cells in response to antigen stimulation. Originally, IL-2 was discovered because of its potent growth factor activity on activated T cells in vitro and was therefore named 'T cell growth factor' (TCGF). However, the generation of IL-2- and IL-2 receptor-deficient mice revealed that IL-2 also plays a regulatory role in the immune system by suppressing autoimmune responses. Two main mechanisms have been identified that explain this suppressive function: (1) IL-2 sensitizes activated T cells for activation-induced cell death (AICD) and (2) IL-2 is critical for the survival and function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), which possess potent immunosuppressive properties.IL-2 signaling occurs when IL-2 binds to the heterotrimeric high-affinity IL-2 receptor (IL-2R), which consists of alpha, beta and gamma chains. The IL-2R was identified in 1981 via radiolabeled ligand binding (Robb et al. 1981). The IL-2R alpha chain was identified in 1982 (Leonard et al.), the beta chain in 1986/7 (Sharon et al. 1986, Teshigawara et al. 1987) and the IL-2R gamma chain in 1992 (Takeshita et al.). The high affinity of IL-2 binding to the IL-2R is created by a very rapid association rate to the IL-2R alpha chain, combined with a much slower dissociation rate contributed by the combination of the IL-2R beta and gamma chains (Wang & Smith 1987). After antigen stimulation, T cells upregulate the high-affinity IL-2R alpha chain; IL-2R alpha captures IL-2 and this complex then associates with the constitutively expressed IL-2R beta and gamma chains. The IL-2R gamma chain is shared by several other members of the cytokine receptor superfamily including IL-4, IL-7, IL-9, IL-15 and IL-21 receptors, and consequently is often referred to as the Common gamma chain (Gamma-c).\nThe tyrosine kinases Jak1 and Jak3, which are constitutively associated with IL-2R beta and Gamma-c respectively, are activated resulting in phosphorylation of three critical tyrosine residues in the IL-2R beta cytoplasmic tail. These phosphorylated residues enable recruitment of the adaptor molecule Shc, activating the MAPK and PI3K pathways, and the transcription factor STAT5. After phosphorylation, STAT5 forms dimers that translocate to the nucleus and initiate gene expression. While STAT5 activation is critical for IL-2 function in most cell types, the contribution of the PI3K/Akt pathway differs between distinct T cell subsets. In Tregs for example, PI3K/Akt is not involved in IL-2 signaling and this may explain some of the different functional outcomes of IL-2 signaling in Tregs vs. effector T cells
Cbl is an E3 ubiquitin-protein ligase that negatively regulates signaling pathways by targeting proteins for ubiquitination and proteasomal degradation (Rao et al. 2002). Cbl negatively regulates PI3K via this mechanism (Dufour et al. 2008). The binding of Cbl to the p85 subunit of PI3K is mediated at least in part by tyrosine phosphorylation at Y731 (Dufour et al. 2008). Fyn and the related kinases Hck and Lyn are known to be associated with Cbl (Anderson et al. 1997, Hunter et al. 1999). Fyn is proven capable of Cbl Y731 phosphorylation (Hunter et al. 1999).The association of Fyn and Cbl has been described as constitutive (Hunter et al. 1999). CBL further associates with the p85 subunit of PI3K (Hartley et al. 1995, Anderson et al. 1997, Hunter et al. 1997), this also described as constitutive and mediated by the SH3 domain of p85. Binding of the SH2 domain of p85 to a specific phosphorylation site in Cbl is postulated to explain the the increase in Cbl/p85 association seen in activated cells (Panchamoorthy et al 1996) which negatively regulates PI3K activity (Fang et al. 2001). The negative effect of increased Cbl-PI3K interaction is mediated by Y731 of Cbl. Cbl binding increases PI3K ubiquitination and proteasome degradation (Dufour et al. 2008).Cbl is constitutively associated with Grb in resting hematopoietic cells (Anderson et al. 1997, Odai et al. 1995, Park et al. 1998, Panchamoorthy et al. 1996). Both the SH2 and SH3 domains of Grb2 are involved. Cbl has 2 distinct C-terminal domains, proximal and distal. The proximal domain binds Grb2 in resting and stimulated cells, and in stimulated cells also binds Shc. The distal domain binds the adaptor protein CRKL. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl in response to IL-3 releases the SH3 domain of Grb2 which then is free to bind other molecules (Park et al. 1998). Cbl is tyrosine phosphorylated in response to many cytokines including IL-3, IL-2 (Gesbert et al. 1998) and IL-4 (Ueno et al. 1998)
Mature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, Fu et al. 1975, Kunkel et al. 1975, Van Noesal et al. 1992, Sanchez et al. 1993, reviewed in Brezski and Monroe 2008). Binding of antigen to the immunoglobulin activates phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta by Src family tyrosine kinases, including LYN, FYN, and BLK (Nel et al. 1984, Yamanashi et al. 1991, Flaswinkel and Reth 1994, Saouaf et al. 1994, Hata et al. 1994, Saouaf et al. 1995, reviewed in Gauld and Cambier 2004, reviewed in Harwood and Batista 2010). The protein kinase SYK may also be involved in phosphorylating the ITAMs.The protein kinase SYK binds the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-activated motifs (ITAMs) on the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) (Wienands et al. 1995, Rowley et al. 1995, Tsang et al. 2008). The binding causes the activation and autophosphorylation of SYK (Law et al. 1994, Irish et al. 2006, Baldock et al. 2008, Tsang et al. 2008, reviewed in Bradshaw 2010).Activated SYK and other kinases phosphorylate BLNK (SLP-65, BASH) and BCAP. LYN and FYN phosphorylate CD19. Phosphorylated BLNK, BCAP, and CD19 serve as scaffolds which recruit effectors to the plasma membrane and assemble large complexes, the signalosomes. BCAP and CD19 recruit phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). BLNK recruits phospholipase C gamma (predominantly PLC-gamma2 in B cells, Coggeshall et al. 1992), NCK, BAM32, BTK, VAV1, and SHC. The effectors are phosphorylated by SYK and other kinases.Phosphorylated BCAP recruits PI3K, which is phosphorylated by a SYK-dependent mechanism (Kuwahara et al. 1996) and produces phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Phosphorylated CD19 likewise recruits PIP3K. PIP3 recruits BAM32 (Marshall et al. 2000) and BTK (de Weers et al. 1994, Baba et al. 2001) to the plasma membrane via their PH domains. PIP3 also recruits and activates PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 (Bae et al. 1998). BTK binds phosphorylated BLNK via its SH2 domain (Baba et al. 2001). BTK phosphorylates PLC-gamma2 (Rodriguez et al. 2001), which activates phospholipase activity (Carter et al. 1991, Roifman and Wang 1992, Kim et al. 2004, Sekiya et al. 2004). Phosphorylated BLNK recruits PLC-gamma, VAV, GRB2, and NCK (Fu and Chan 1997, Fu et al. 1998, Chiu et al. 2002).PLC-gamma hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to yield inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (Carter et al. 1991, Kim et al. 2004). IP3 binds receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum and causes release of Ca2+ ions from the ER into the cytosol. The depletion of calcium from the ER in turn activates STIM1 to interact with ORAI and TRPC1 channels (and possibly other TRP channels) in the plasma membrane, resulting in an influx of extracellular calcium ions (Mori et al. 2002, Muik et al. 2008, Luik et al. 2008, Park et al. 2009)