241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type substrate 1;SHP substrate 1;SHPS-1;Brain Ig-like molecule with tyrosine-based activation motifs;Bit;CD172 antigen-like family member A;Inhibitory receptor SHPS-1;Macrophage fusion receptor;MyD-1 antigen;Signal-regulatory protein alpha-1;Sirp-alpha-1;Signal-regulatory protein alpha-2;Sirp-alpha-2;Signal-regulatory protein alpha-3;Sirp-alpha-3;p84;CD172a;
Immunoglobulin-like cell surface receptor for CD47 Actsas docking protein and induces translocation of PTPN6, PTPN11 andother binding partners from the cytosol to the plasma membraneSupports adhesion of cerebellar neurons, neurite outgrowth andglial cell attachment May play a key role in intracellularsignaling during synaptogenesis and in synaptic function (Bysimilarity) Involved in the negative regulation of receptortyrosine kinase-coupled cellular responses induced by celladhesion, growth factors or insulin Mediates negative regulationof phagocytosis, mast cell activation and dendritic cellactivation CD47 binding prevents maturation of immature dendriticcells and inhibits cytokine production by mature dendritic cells
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast.
Leukocyte extravasation is a rigorously controlled process that guides white cell movement from the vascular lumen to sites of tissue inflammation. The powerful adhesive interactions that are required for leukocytes to withstand local flow at the vessel wall is a multistep process mediated by different adhesion molecules. Platelets adhered to injured vessel walls form strong adhesive substrates for leukocytes. For instance, the initial tethering and rolling of leukocytes over the site of injury are mediated by reversible binding of selectins to their cognate cell-surface glycoconjugates.
\r\n\r\nEndothelial cells are tightly connected through various proteins, which regulate the organization of the junctional complex and bind to cytoskeletal proteins or cytoplasmic interaction partners that allow the transfer of intracellular signals. An important role for these junctional proteins in governing the transendothelial migration of leukocytes under normal or inflammatory conditions has been established.
\r\n\r\nThis pathway describes some of the key interactions that assist in the process of platelet and leukocyte interaction with the endothelium, in response to injury
Signal regulatory protein alpha (SIRPA, SHPS1, CD172a) is a transmembrane protein expressed mostly on myeloid cells. CD47, a widely expressed transmembrane protein, is a ligand for SIRP alpha, with the two proteins constituting a cell-cell communication system. The interaction of SIRPA with CD47 is important for the regulation of migration and phagocytosis. SIRPA functions as a docking protein to recruit and activate PTPN6 (SHP-1) or PTPN11 (SHP-2) at the cell membrane in response to extracellular stimuli. SIRPA also binds other intracellular proteins including the adaptor molecules Src kinase-associated protein (SKAP2 SKAP55hom/R), Fyn-binding protein/SLP-76-associated phosphoprotein (FYB/SLAP-130) and the tyrosine kinase PYK2. SIRPA also binds the extracellular proteins, surfactant-A (SP-A) and surfactant-D (SP-D). The SIRP family members SIRPB and SIRPG show high sequence similarity and similar extracellular structural topology, including three Ig domains, but their ligand binding topology might differ. SIRPB is expressed on myeloid cells, including monocytes, granulocytes and DCs. It has no known natural ligand. SIRPG can bind CD47 but with lower affinity than SIRPA
Neutrophils are the most abundant leukocytes (white blood cells), indispensable in defending the body against invading microorganisms. In response to infection, neutrophils leave the circulation and migrate towards the inflammatory focus. They contain several subsets of granules that are mobilized to fuse with the cell membrane or phagosomal membrane, resulting in the exocytosis or exposure of membrane proteins. Traditionally, neutrophil granule constituents are described as antimicrobial or proteolytic, but granules also introduce membrane proteins to the cell surface, changing how the neutrophil responds to its environment (Borregaard et al. 2007). Primed neutrophils actively secrete cytokines and other inflammatory mediators and can present antigens via MHC II, stimulating T-cells (Wright et al. 2010).Granules form during neutrophil differentiation. Granule subtypes can be distinguished by their content but overlap in structure and composition. The differences are believed to be a consequence of changing protein expression and differential timing of granule formation during the terminal processes of neutrophil differentiation, rather than sorting (Le Cabec et al. 1996). The classical granule subsets are Azurophil or primary granules (AG), secondary granules (SG) and gelatinase granules (GG). Neutrophils also contain exocytosable storage cell organelles, storage vesicles (SV), formed by endocytosis they contain many cell-surface markers and extracellular, plasma proteins (Borregaard et al. 1992). Ficolin-1-rich granules (FG) are like GGs highly exocytosable but gelatinase-poor (Rorvig et al. 2009)