241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the most abundant inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system (CNS). When released in the synaptic cleft, GABA binds to three major classes of receptors: GABAA, GABAB, and GABAC receptors. GABAA and GABAC receptors are ionotropic and mediate fast GABA responses by triggering chloride channel openings, while GABAB receptors are metabotropic and mediate slower GABA responses by activating G-proteins and influencing second messenger systems. GABAA receptors, the major sites for fast inhibitory neurotransmission in the CNS, are regulated by phosphorylation mechanisms, affecting both their functional properties and their cell surface mobility and trafficking. GABA release by the presynaptic terminal is negatively regulated by GABAB autoreceptors, and is cleared from the extracellular space by GABA transporters (GATs) located either on the presynaptic terminal or neighboring glial cells.
Type I diabetes mellitus is a disease that results from autoimmune destruction of the insulin-producing beta-cells. Certain beta-cell proteins act as autoantigens after being processed by antigen-presenting cell (APC), such as macrophages and dendritic cells, and presented in a complex with MHC-II molecules on the surface of the APC. Then immunogenic signals from APC activate CD4+ T cells, predominantly of the Th1 subset. Antigen-activated Th1 cells produce IL-2 and IFNgamma. They activate macrophages and cytotoxic CD8+ T cells, and these effector cells may kill islet beta-cells by one or both of two types of mechanisms: (1) direct interactions of antigen-specific cytotoxic T cells with a beta-cell autoantigen-MHC-I complex on the beta-cell, and (2) non-specific inflammatory mediators, such as free radicals/oxidants and cytokines (IL-1, TNFalpha, TNFbeta, IFNgamma).Type I diabetes is a polygenic disease. One of the principle determining genetic factors in diabetes incidence is the inheritance of mutant MHC-II alleles. Another plausible candidate gene is the insulin gene.
GABA synthesized uniquely by two forms of glutamate decarboxylases, GAD65 and GAD67, that are functionally distinct and have different co-factor requirements. GAD65 is functionally linked to VGAT, the GABA transporter and selectively GABA synthesized by GAD65 is preferably loaded into the synaptic vesicles. GABA synthesized by GAD67 may be used for functions other than nuerotransmission
GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the mammalian central nervous system. GABA modulates neuronal excitability throughout the nervous system. Disruption of GABA neurotransmission leads to many neurological diseases including epilepsy and a general anxiety disorder. GABA is synthesized by two distinct enzymes GAD67 and GAD65 that differ in their cellular localization, functional properties and co-factor requirements. GABA synthesized by GAD65 is used for neurotransmission whereas GABA synthesized by GAD67 is used for processes other than neurotransmission such as synaptogenesis and protection against neuronal injury. GABA is loaded into synaptic vesicle with the help of vesicular inhibitory amino acid transporter or VGAT. GAD65 and VGAT are functionally linked at the synaptic vesicle membrane and GABA synthesized by GAD65 is preferentially loaded into the synaptic vesicle over GABA synthesized in cytoplasm by GAD67.The GABA loaded synaptic vesicles are docked at the plasma membrane with the help of the SNARE complexes and primed by interplay between various proteins including Munc18, complexin etc. Release of GABA loaded synaptic vesicle is initiated by the arrival of action potential at the presynaptic bouton and opening of N or P/Q voltage gated Ca2+ channels. Ca2+ influx results in Ca2+ binding by synaptobrevin, which is a part of the SNARE complex that also includes SNAP25 and syntaxin, leading to synaptic vesicle fusion. Release of GABA in the synaptic cleft leads to binding of GABA by the GABA receptors and post ligand binding events