241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Recognizes and binds the 7-methylguanosine-containingmRNA cap during an early step in the initiation of proteinsynthesis and facilitates ribosome binding by inducing theunwinding of the mRNAs secondary structures Component of theCYFIP1-EIF4E-FMR1 complex which binds to the mRNA cap and mediatestranslational repression In the CYFIP1-EIF4E-FMR1 complex thissubunit mediates the binding to the mRNA cap
EGFR is a tyrosine kinase that participates in the regulation of cellular homeostasis. EGFR also serves as a stimulus for cancer growth. EGFR gene mutations and protein overexpression, both of which activate down- stream pathways, are associated with cancers, especially lung cancer. Several tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapies against EGFR are currently administered and are initially effective in cancer patients who have EGFR mutations or aberrant activation of EGFR. However, the development of TKI resistance is common and results in the recurrence of tumors. Studies over the last decade have identified mechanisms that drive resistance to EGFR TKI treatment. Most outstanding mechanisms are: the secondary EGFR mutation (T790M), activation of alternative pathways (c-Met, HGF, AXL), aberrance of the downstream pathways (K-RAS mutations, loss of PTEN), impairment of the EGFR-TKIs-mediated apoptosis pathway (BCL2-like 11/BIM deletion polymorphism), histologic transformation, etc.
RNA transport from the nucleus to the cytoplasm is fundamental for gene expression. The different RNA species that are produced in the nucleus are exported through the nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) via mobile export receptors. The majority of RNAs, such as tRNAs, rRNAs, and U snRNAs, are transported by specific export receptors, which belong to the karyopherin-beta family proteins. A feature of karyopherins is their regulation by the small GTPase Ran. However, general mRNA export is mechanistically different. Nuclear export of mRNAs is functionally coupled to different steps in gene expression processes, such as transcription, splicing, 3'-end formation and even translation.
Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) is a transcription factor that functions as a master regulator of oxygen homeostasis. It consists of two subunits: an inducibly-expressed HIF-1alpha subunit and a constitutively-expressed HIF-1beta subunit. Under normoxia, HIF-1 alpha undergoes hydroxylation at specific prolyl residues which leads to an immediate ubiquitination and subsequent proteasomal degradation of the subunit. In contrast, under hypoxia, HIF-1 alpha subunit becomes stable and interacts with coactivators such as p300/CBP to modulate its transcriptional activity. Eventually, HIF-1 acts as a master regulator of numerous hypoxia-inducible genes under hypoxic conditions. The target genes of HIF-1 encode proteins that increase O2 delivery and mediate adaptive responses to O2 deprivation. Despite its name, HIF-1 is induced not only in response to reduced oxygen availability but also by other stimulants, such as nitric oxide, or various growth factors.
The mammalian (mechanistic) target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a highly conserved serine/threonine protein kinase, which exists in two complexes termed mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) and 2 (mTORC2). mTORC1 contains mTOR, Raptor, PRAS40, Deptor, mLST8, Tel2 and Tti1. mTORC1 is activated by the presence of growth factors, amino acids, energy status, stress and oxygen levels to regulate several biological processes, including lipid metabolism, autophagy, protein synthesis and ribosome biogenesis. On the other hand, mTORC2, which consists of mTOR, mSin1, Rictor, Protor, Deptor, mLST8, Tel2 and Tti1, responds to growth factors and controls cytoskeletal organization, metabolism and survival.
The phosphatidylinositol 3' -kinase(PI3K)-Akt signaling pathway is activated by many types of cellular stimuli or toxic insults and regulates fundamental cellular functions such as transcription, translation, proliferation, growth, and survival. The binding of growth factors to their receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) or G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR) stimulates class Ia and Ib PI3K isoforms, respectively. PI3K catalyzes the production of phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-triphosphate (PIP3) at the cell membrane. PIP3 in turn serves as a second messenger that helps to activate Akt. Once active, Akt can control key cellular processes by phosphorylating substrates involved in apoptosis, protein synthesis, metabolism, and cell cycle.
Regulation of longevity depends on genetic and environmental factors. Caloric restriction (CR), that is limiting food intake, is recognized in mammals as the best characterized and most reproducible strategy for extending lifespan. Four pathways have been implicated in mediating the CR effect. These are the insulin like growth factor (IGF-1)/insulin signaling pathway, the sirtuin pathway, the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway and the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway. The collective response of these pathways to CR is believed to promote cellular fitness and ultimately longevity via activation of autophagy, stress defense mechanisms, and survival pathways while attenuating proinflammatory mediators and cellular growth. Furthermore, there is evidence supporting that life span extension can be achieved with pharmacologic agents that mimic the effects of caloric restriction, such as rapamycin, via mTOR signaling blockade, resveratrol, by activating SIRT1 activity, and metformin, which seems to be a robust stimulator of AMPK activity. As an aging suppressor, Klotho is an important molecule in aging processes and its overexpression results in longevity.
Insulin binding to its receptor results in the tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrates (IRS) by the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase (INSR). This allows association of IRSs with the regulatory subunit of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K). PI3K activates 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1), which activates Akt, a serine kinase. Akt in turn deactivates glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3), leading to activation of glycogen synthase (GYS) and thus glycogen synthesis. Activation of Akt also results in the translocation of GLUT4 vesicles from their intracellular pool to the plasma membrane, where they allow uptake of glucose into the cell. Akt also leads to mTOR-mediated activation of protein synthesis by eIF4 and p70S6K. The translocation of GLUT4 protein is also elicited through the CAP/Cbl/TC10 pathway, once Cbl is phosphorylated by INSR.Other signal transduction proteins interact with IRS including GRB2. GRB2 is part of the cascade including SOS, RAS, RAF and MEK that leads to activation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and mitogenic responses in the form of gene transcription. SHC is another substrate of INSR. When tyrosine phosphorylated, SHC associates with GRB2 and can thus activate the RAS/MAPK pathway independently of IRS-1.
Interferon-stimulated gene 15 (ISG15) is a member of the ubiquitin-like (Ubl) family. It is strongly induced upon exposure to type I Interferons (IFNs), viruses, bacterial LPS, and other stresses. Once released the mature ISG15 conjugates with an array of target proteins, a process termed ISGylation. ISGylation utilizes a mechanism similar to ubiquitination, requiring a three-step enzymatic cascade. UBE1L is the ISG15 E1 activating enzyme which specifically activates ISG15 at the expense of ATP. ISG15 is then transfered from E1 to the E2 conjugating enzyme UBCH8 and then to the target protein with the aid of an ISG15 E3 ligase, such as HERC5 and EFP. Hundreds of target proteins for ISGylation have been identified. Several proteins that are part of antiviral signaling pathways, such as RIG-I, MDA5, Mx1, PKR, filamin B, STAT1, IRF3 and JAK1, have been identified as targets for ISGylation. ISG15 also conjugates some viral proteins, inhibiting viral budding and release. ISGylation appears to act either by disrupting the activity of a target protein and/or by altering its localization within the cell
While circularization of mRNA during translation initiation is thought to contribute to an increase in the efficiency of translation, it also appears to provide a mechanism for translational silencing. This might be achieved by bringing inhibitory 3' UTR-binding proteins into a position in which they interfere either with the function of the translation initiation complex or with the assembly of the ribosome (Mazumder et al 2001). Translational silencing of Ceruloplasmin (Cp) occurs 16 hrs after its induction by INF-gamma (Mazumder et al., 1997). Although the mechanism by which silencing occurs has not yet been determined, this process is mediated by the L13a subunit of the 60s ribosome and thought to require circularization of the Cp mRNA (Sampath et al., 2003; Mazumder et al., 2001; Mazumder et al., 2003). Between 14 and 16 hrs after INF gamma induction, the L13a subunit of the 60s ribosome is phosphorylated and released from the 60s subunit. Phosphorylated L13a then associates with the GAIT element in the 3' UTR of the Cp mRNA inhibiting its translation
mTORC1 integrates four major signals – growth factors, energy status, oxygen and amino acids – to regulate many processes that are involved in the promotion of cell growth. Growth factors stimulate mTORC1 through the activation of the canonical insulin and Ras signaling pathways. The energy status of the cell is signaled to mTORC1 through AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), a key sensor of intracellular energy status (Hardie 2007). Energy depletion (low ATP:ADP ratio) activates AMPK which phosphorylates TSC2, increasing its GAP activity towards Rheb which reduces mTORC1 activation (Inoki et al. 2003). AMPK can reduce mTORC1 activity by directly phosphorylating Raptor (Gwinn et al. 2008). Amino acids positively regulate mTORC1 (reviewed by Guertin & Sabatini 2007). In the presence of amino acids, Rag proteins bind Raptor to promote the relocalization of mTORC1 from the cytoplasm to lysosomal membranes (Puertollano 2014) where it is activated by Rheb (Saucedo et al. 2003, Stocker et al. 2003). Translocation of mTOR to the lysosome requires active Rag GTPases and a complex known as Ragulator, a pentameric protein complex that anchors the Rag GTPases to lysosomes (Sancak et al. 2008, 2010, Bar-Peled et al. 2012). Rag proteins function as heterodimers, consisting of GTP-bound RagA or RagB complexed with GDP-bound RagC or RagD. Amino acids may trigger the GTP loading of RagA/B, thereby promoting binding to raptor and assembly of an activated mTORC1 complex, though a recent study suggested that the activation of mTORC1 is not dependent on Rag GTP charging (Oshiro et al. 2014). \n\nThe activity of Rheb is regulated by a complex consisting of tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1), TSC2, and TBC1 domain family member 7 (TBC1D7) (Huang et al. 2008, Dibble et al. 2012). This complex localizes to lysosomes and functions as a GTPase-activating protein (GAP) that inhibits the activity of Rheb (Menon et al. 2014, Demetriades et al. 2014). In the presence of growth factors or insulin, TSC releases its inhibitory activity on Rheb, thus allowing the activation of mTORC1
Deadenylation of mRNA proceeds in two steps. According to current models, in the first step the poly(A) tail is shortened from about 200 adenosine residues to about 80 residues by the PAN2-PAN3 complex. In the second step the poly(A) tail is further shortened to 10-15 residues by either the CCR4-NOT complex or by the PARN exoribonuclease. How a particular mRNA is targeted to CCR4-NOT or PARN is unknown.A number of other deadenylase enzymes can be identified in genomic searches. One particularly interesting one is nocturin, a protein that is related to the CCR-1 deadenylase and plays a role in circadian rhythms.There is also evidence for networking between deadenylation and other aspects of gene expression. CCR4-NOT, for example, is known to be a transcription factor. PARN is part of a complex that regulates poly(A) tail length and hence translation in developing oocytes
The translation initiation complex forms when the 43S complex binds the mRNA that is associated with eIF4F, eIF4B and eIF4H. eIF4G in the eIF4F complex can directly contact eIF3 in the 43S complex. eIF1A is necessary for the formation of this complex
The cap-binding complex is constituted by the initiation factors eIF4A, eIF4G and eIF4E. First, eIF4E must be released from the inactive eIF4E:4E-BP complex. Then eIF4A interacts with eIF4G, and eIF4E binds to the amino-terminal domain of eIF4G, resulting in the formation of the cap-binding complex eIF4F. eIF4A together with eIF4B or eIF4H is thought to unwind RNA secondary structures near the 5'-end of the mRNA. The translation initiation complex is formed when the 43S complex binds the cap-bound mRNA
The 80S ribosome bound to the mRNA moves along the mRNA molecule from its initial site to the initiation codon and forms a 48S complex, in which the initiation codon is base paired to the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi. Proper recognition of the AUG initiation codon depends on base pairing with the anticodon of the Met-tRNAi and requires eIF1, eIF1A, eIF2 and eIF5
Hydrolysis of eIF2-GTP occurs after the Met-tRNAi has recognized the AUG. This reaction is catalyzed by eIF5 (or eIF5B) and is thought to cause dissociation of all other initiation factors and allow joining of the large 60S ribosomal subunit. The 60S subunit joins - a reaction catalyzed by eIF5 or eIF5B - resulting in a translation-competent 80S ribosome. Following 60S subunit joining, eIF5B hydrolyzes its GTP and is released from the 80S ribosome, which is now ready to start elongating the polypeptide chain