241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Mediates B-cell B-cell interactions May be involved inthe localization of B-cells in lymphoid tissues Binds sialylatedglycoproteins; one of which is CD45 Preferentially binds toalpha-2,6-linked sialic acid The sialic acid recognition site canbe masked by cis interactions with sialic acids on the same cellsurface Upon ligand induced tyrosine phosphorylation in theimmune response seems to be involved in regulation of B-cellantigen receptor signaling Plays a role in positive regulationthrough interaction with Src family tyrosine kinases and may alsoact as an inhibitory receptor by recruiting cytoplasmicphosphatases via their SH2 domains that block signal transductionthrough dephosphorylation of signaling molecules
Cell adhesion molecules are (glyco)proteins expressed on the cell surface and play a critical role in a wide array of biologic processes that include hemostasis, the immune response, inflammation, embryogenesis, and development of neuronal tissue. There are four main groups: the integrin family, the immunoglobulin superfamily, selectins, and cadherins. Membrane proteins that mediate immune cell–cell interactions fall into different categories, namely those involved in antigen recognition, costimulation and cellular adhesion. Furthermore cell-cell adhesions are important for brain morphology and highly coordinated brain functions such as memory and learning. During early development of the nervous system, neurons elongate their axons towards their targets and establish and maintain synapses through formation of cell-cell adhesions. Cell-cell adhesions also underpin axon-axon contacts and link neurons with supporting schwann cells and oligodendrocytes.
Blood-cell development progresses from a hematopoietic stem cell (HSC), which can undergo either self-renewal or differentiation into a multilineage committed progenitor cell: a common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) or a common myeloid progenitor (CMP). A CLP gives rise to the lymphoid lineage of white blood cells or leukocytes-the natural killer (NK) cells and the T and B lymphocytes. A CMP gives rise to the myeloid lineage, which comprises the rest of the leukocytes, the erythrocytes (red blood cells), and the megakaryocytes that produce platelets important in blood clotting. Cells undergoing these differentiation process express a stage- and lineage-specific set of surface markers. Therefore cellular stages are identified by the specific expression patterns of these genes.
B cells are an important component of adaptive immunity. They produce and secrete millions of different antibody molecules, each of which recognizes a different (foreign) antigen. The B cell receptor (BCR) is an integral membrane protein complex that is composed of two immunoglobulin (Ig) heavy chains, two Ig light chains and two heterodimers of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta. After BCR ligation by antigen, three main protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs) -the SRC-family kinase LYN, SYK and the TEC-family kinase BTK- are activated. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and phospholipase C-gamma 2 (PLC-gamma 2) are important downstream effectors of BCR signalling. This signalling ultimately results in the expression of immediate early genes that further activate the expression of other genes involved in B cell proliferation, differentiation and Ig production as well as other processes.
A number of receptors and cell adhesion molecules play a key role in modifying the response of cells of lymphoid origin (such as B-, T- and NK cells) to self and tumor antigens, as well as to pathogenic organisms.
Molecules such as KIRs and LILRs form part of a crucial surveillance system that looks out for any derangement, usually caused by cancer or viral infection, in MHC Class I presentation. Somatic cells are also able to report internal functional impairment by displaying surface stress markers such as MICA. The presence of these molecules on somatic cells is picked up by C-lectin NK immune receptors.
Lymphoid cells are able to regulate their location and movement in accordance to their state of activation, and home in on tissues expressing the appropriate complementary ligands. For example, lymphoid cells may fine tune the presence and concentration of adhesion molecules belonging to the IgSF, Selectin and Integrin class that interact with a number of vascular markers of inflammation.
Furthermore, there are a number of avenues through which lymphoid cells may interact with antigen. This may be presented directly to a specific T-cell receptor in the context of an MHC molecule. Antigen-antibody complexes may anchor to the cell via a small number of lymphoid-specific Fc receptors that may, in turn, influence cell function further. Activated complement factor C3d binds to both antigen and to cell surface receptor CD21. In such cases, the far-reaching influence of CD19 on B-lymphocyte function is tempered by its interaction with CD21
BCR activation is highly regulated and coreceptors like CD22 (SIGLEC2) set a signalling threshold to prevent aberrant immune response and autoimmune disease (Cyster et al. 1997, Han et al. 2005). CD22 is a glycoprotein found on the surface of B cells during restricted stages of development. CD22 is a member of the receptors of the sialic acid-binding Ig-like lectin (Siglec) family which binds specifically to the terminal sequence N-acetylneuraminic acid alpha(2-6) galactose (NeuAc-alpha(2-6)-Gal) present on many B-cell glycoproteins (Powell et al. 1993, Sgroi et al. 1993). CD22 has seven immunoglobulin (Ig)-like extracellular domains and a cytoplasmic tail containing six tyrosines, three of which belong to the inhibitory immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibition motifs (ITIMs) sequences. Upon BCR cross-linking CD22 is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated by the tyrosine kinase Lyn, thereby recruiting and activating tyrosine phosphatase, SHP-1 and inhibiting calcium signalling
Mature B cells express IgM and IgD immunoglobulins which are complexed with Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) to form the B cell receptor (BCR) (Fu et al. 1974, Fu et al. 1975, Kunkel et al. 1975, Van Noesal et al. 1992, Sanchez et al. 1993, reviewed in Brezski and Monroe 2008). Binding of antigen to the immunoglobulin activates phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs (ITAMs) in the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha and Ig-beta by Src family tyrosine kinases, including LYN, FYN, and BLK (Nel et al. 1984, Yamanashi et al. 1991, Flaswinkel and Reth 1994, Saouaf et al. 1994, Hata et al. 1994, Saouaf et al. 1995, reviewed in Gauld and Cambier 2004, reviewed in Harwood and Batista 2010). The protein kinase SYK may also be involved in phosphorylating the ITAMs.The protein kinase SYK binds the phosphorylated immunoreceptor tyrosine-activated motifs (ITAMs) on the cytoplasmic tails of Ig-alpha (CD79A, MB-1) and Ig-beta (CD79B, B29) (Wienands et al. 1995, Rowley et al. 1995, Tsang et al. 2008). The binding causes the activation and autophosphorylation of SYK (Law et al. 1994, Irish et al. 2006, Baldock et al. 2008, Tsang et al. 2008, reviewed in Bradshaw 2010).Activated SYK and other kinases phosphorylate BLNK (SLP-65, BASH) and BCAP. LYN and FYN phosphorylate CD19. Phosphorylated BLNK, BCAP, and CD19 serve as scaffolds which recruit effectors to the plasma membrane and assemble large complexes, the signalosomes. BCAP and CD19 recruit phosphoinositol 3-kinase (PI3K). BLNK recruits phospholipase C gamma (predominantly PLC-gamma2 in B cells, Coggeshall et al. 1992), NCK, BAM32, BTK, VAV1, and SHC. The effectors are phosphorylated by SYK and other kinases.Phosphorylated BCAP recruits PI3K, which is phosphorylated by a SYK-dependent mechanism (Kuwahara et al. 1996) and produces phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3). Phosphorylated CD19 likewise recruits PIP3K. PIP3 recruits BAM32 (Marshall et al. 2000) and BTK (de Weers et al. 1994, Baba et al. 2001) to the plasma membrane via their PH domains. PIP3 also recruits and activates PLC-gamma1 and PLC-gamma2 (Bae et al. 1998). BTK binds phosphorylated BLNK via its SH2 domain (Baba et al. 2001). BTK phosphorylates PLC-gamma2 (Rodriguez et al. 2001), which activates phospholipase activity (Carter et al. 1991, Roifman and Wang 1992, Kim et al. 2004, Sekiya et al. 2004). Phosphorylated BLNK recruits PLC-gamma, VAV, GRB2, and NCK (Fu and Chan 1997, Fu et al. 1998, Chiu et al. 2002).PLC-gamma hydrolyzes phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate to yield inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) and diacylglycerol (Carter et al. 1991, Kim et al. 2004). IP3 binds receptors on the endoplasmic reticulum and causes release of Ca2+ ions from the ER into the cytosol. The depletion of calcium from the ER in turn activates STIM1 to interact with ORAI and TRPC1 channels (and possibly other TRP channels) in the plasma membrane, resulting in an influx of extracellular calcium ions (Mori et al. 2002, Muik et al. 2008, Luik et al. 2008, Park et al. 2009)