241 human active and 13 inactive phosphatases in total;
194 phosphatases have substrate data;
336 protein substrates;
83 non-protein substrates;
1215 dephosphorylation interactions;
299 KEGG pathways;
876 Reactome pathways;
last scientific update: 11 Mar, 2019
last maintenance update: 01 Sep, 2023
Involved in osteopontin/bone sialoproteindephosphorylation Its expression seems to increase in certainpathological states such as Gaucher and Hodgkin diseases, thehairy cell, the B-cell, and the T-cell leukemias
Catalytic Activity (UniProt annotation)
A phosphate monoester + H(2)O = an alcohol +phosphate
Lysosomes are membrane-delimited organelles in animal cells serving as the cell's main digestive compartment to which all sorts of macromolecules are delivered for degradation. They contain more than 40 hydrolases in an acidic environment (pH of about 5). After synthesis in the ER, lysosomal enzymes are decorated with mannose-6-phosphate residues, which are recognized by mannose-6-phosphate receptors in the trans-Golgi network. They are packaged into clathrin-coated vesicles and are transported to late endosomes. Substances for digestion are acquired by the lysosomes via a series of processes including endocytosis, phagocytosis, and autophagy.
The osteoclasts, multinucleared cells originating from the hematopoietic monocyte-macrophage lineage, are responsible for bone resorption. Osteoclastogenesis is mainly regulated by signaling pathways activated by RANK and immune receptors, whose ligands are expressed on the surface of osteoblasts. Signaling from RANK changes gene expression patterns through transcription factors like NFATc1 and characterizes the active osteoclast.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic autoimmune joint disease where persistent inflammation affects bone remodeling leading to progressive bone destruction. In RA, abnormal activation of the immune system elevates pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines levels, which can promote synovial angiogenesis and leukocyte infiltration. The synovium forms a hyperplastic pannus with infiltrated macrophage-like and fibroblast-like synoviocytes and invades joints by secreting proteinases and inducing osteoclast differentiation.
Riboflavin (vitamin B2, E101) is an essential component for the cofactors FAD (flavin-adenine dinucleotide) and FMN (flavin mononucleotide). Together with NAD+ and NADP+, FAD and FMN are important hydrogen carriers and take part in more than 100 redox reactions involved in energy metabolism. Riboflavin is present in many vegetables and meat and during digestion, various flavoproteins from food are degraded and riboflavin is resorbed. The major degradation and excretion product in humans is riboflavin (Rivlin 1970)